Sadaqa e Fitr

 

What is Sadaqa e Fitr?

Answer: Sadaqa e Fitr also known as Zakat ul Fitr or Fitrah is the charity
which is paid for the purification of one’s Fasts of Ramadaan from any
weakness and so that the needy may benefit from it.
Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and Haakim have reported from Hazrat Ibn Ab’bas
عنهما تعالى اهلل رضى that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah صلى الله عليه وسلم stipulated that Zakaat ul Fitr be
given, so that the fasts may be purified from shameless and vulgar words
and so that the needy (Miskeen) may be fed.
Question: Did Nabi Kareem صلى الله عليه وسلم instruct the payment of Sadaqa e Fitr?
Answer: Yes, The Beloved Rasool صلى الله عليه وسلم instructed the payment of Sadaqa e
Fitr.
It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Hazrat Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn
Umar عنهما تعالى اهلل رضىthat Sayyiduna Rasoolullah صلى الله عليه وسلم instructed the payment of
one Sa’ of dates or one Sa’ of barley as Zakat ul Fitr on every Muslim slave
or free man, male or female, young or old, and he صلى الله عليه وسلم commanded that it
be paid before (the people went out to offer Eid) Namaaz.

It is reported in Abu Dawud and Nasa’i that at the end of Ramadaan
Abdullah ibn Abbas عنهما تعالى اهلل رضى said, ‘Pay Sadaqa for your fasts, for this
Sadaqa has been stipulated by Rasoolullah صلى الله عليه وسلم which is one Sa’ of dates or
one Sa’ of barley or half Sa’ of wheat.’
Question: What happens if the Fitrah is not paid?
Answer: Dailmi, Khateeb, and Ibn Asaakir report from Anas ؓ that
Rasoolullah صلى الله عليه وسلم said, ‘The fasts of a servant remain suspended between the
skies and the earth, until he does not discharge the Sadaqa e Fitr.’
Question: How much is half Sa’ according to the metric system?
Answer: As per the research and Fatwa of Sayyidi Aala Hazrat Ash Shah
Imam Ahmed Raza Khan ؓ we have ascertained that the original Fitrah
based on Half Sa’ of wheat is (the value of) 1 kg 574 grams (of wheat), but
he advised as a measure of care to increase it for the benefit of the Faqeer,
and based on this stipulated formula to increase it on the basis of care, it
works out to (the value of) 1 kg 919.1 grams of wheat. This is further
verified from the well-researched Fatwa of Mufti Ata ul Mustafa Amjadi
who is the son of Huzoor Sayyidi Muhad’dith e Kabeer Qibla.
Question: What is the time period in which to pay the Fitrah?
Answer: Sadaqa e Fitr is Waajib. One has his entire life to discharge it, in
In other words, if he has not discharged it in the stipulated period, he should
do so now. If it is not discharged it will not fall away and to pay it now

does not mean it is Qaza but it will still be regarded as Ada (on time), even
though it is Masnun to do so before the Namaaz of Eid. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]
It is in Tirmizi Shareef from Amr bin Shu’aib who reported from his
father, who in turn reported from his grandfather that Rasoolullah صلى الله عليه وسلم
sent a person into the localities of Makkah and said, ‘Announce that the
Sadaqa e Fitr is Waajib.’
Question: Will Sadaqa e Fitr be paid for a deceased or from the wealth he
has left behind?
Answer: Sadaqa e Fitr is Waajib upon the person (i.e. upon an individual)
and not upon his wealth, so if he dies, it will not be paid from his wealth.
However, if his heirs wish to pay it as a favor of goodwill from their side,
then they may do so. However, they are not obligated to do so. If the
deceased made a Wasiyat that it should be paid, then it will definitely be
paid up from the one-third of his wealth (from which he is permitted to
make a Wasiyat), even if his heirs refuse to give permission for this.
[Jauhira etc.].

Question: When does Sadaqa e Fitr become Waajib upon a person?

Answer: Sadaqa e Fitr becomes Waajib on the day of Eid as soon as the
Subho Saadiq (True Dawn) appears. Therefore, the person who died
before morning (Subho Saadiq), or if a person was wealthy and became a
Faqeer, or if an unbeliever became a Muslim after the first light appeared,
or if a child was born, or if a person who was a Faqeer became wealthy,

then it is not Waajib upon them. However, if he died after first light
appeared, or if an unbeliever became a Muslim before first light appeared,
or if a child was born, or if he was a Faqeer and became wealthy, then it is
Waajib upon them. [Alamgiri]

Question: Upon whom is Sadaqa e Fitr Waajib?

Answer: Sadaqa e Fitr is Waajib upon every free Muslim who is Saahib e
Nisaab, where Nisaab is over and above his Haajat-e-Asliyah, i.e. a
person’s basic essentials. In this, there is no condition of Aaqil (Sanity),
Baaligh (puberty) and Maal Al Naami (Productive Wealth). [Durr-eMukhtar]
Question: Is there Sadaqa e Fitr on a na-baaligh and an insane person?
Answer: If a Na-Baaligh (minor) or Majnun (insane person) is Maalik-eNisaab (possessor of Nisaab) then Sadaqa e Fitr is Waajib upon them.
Their guardian should pay it from their wealth. If the guardian did not
pay it and the Na-Baaligh became Baaligh, or if the insanity of the insane
person has gone away, then they should pay it personally. If he was not
personally Maalik-e-Nisaab and the guardian did not pay it, then after
becoming Baaligh and returning to their proper senses, they are not
responsible for its payment. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Question: Does a father have to pay the Fitrah of his minor children?

Answer: Sadaqa e Fitr is Waajib upon a male who is Maalik-e-Nisaab in his
personal capacity and on behalf of his minor children as well if the
minors are themselves not Maalik-e-Nisaab. Also, if they (the minors) are
Maalik-e-Nisaab, then the Sadaqa should be paid up from their wealth and
the Sadaqa of a child who is not sane, even though he is Baaligh if he is
not Ghani, then it is the responsibility of his father, i.e. it is Waajib upon
his father. However, if he is Ghani, then it must be paid from his wealth,
be this if his insanity is Asli (i.e. he entered puberty in this state) or if it
only occurred temporarily, in other words afterward, then too the ruling
for both is the same. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]
Question: Is fasting conditional for Sadaqa e Fitr to become Waajib?
Answer: For Sadaqa e Fitr to become Waajib, fasting is not conditional. If
one did not fast due to some valid reason, or due to travel, or due to
an illness, or old-age or (Allah Forbid) if he left out the fast without a valid
reason, then in all the said cases, the Sadaqa e Fitr is still Waajib. [Raddul
Muhtar]

Question: What is the ruling on the Fitrah of females?

Answer: If a female has not as yet reached the age of puberty but is
capable to serve her husband, and has been given in Nikah and she has
been sent to the home of her husband as well, then in this case her Sadaqa

e Fitr is not Waajib upon anyone. Neither is it Waajib upon her husband
and nor is it Waajib upon her father. If she is not capable of serving her
husband, or if she has not been sent off to the home of her husband as
yet, then it is the responsibility of her father. All this is only applicable if
the female herself is not Maalik-e-Nisaab, otherwise in any case the
Sadaqa e Fitr will be paid from her own wealth. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul
Muhtar]

Question: Who is responsible for the Fitrah of children whose father has passed away?

Answer: If there is no father (i.e. if he is deceased), then the paternal
grandfather is in place of the father. It is Waajib upon him to give the
Sadaqa on behalf of his needy grandsons and grand-daughters. [Durr-eMukhtar]
Question: Is it compulsory for the mother to pay the Fitrah?
Answer: It is not Waajib upon the mother to pay Sadaqa e Fitr on behalf
of her minor children. [Raddul Muhtar]

Question: Is the father responsible for the Fitrah of his wife, and children who have reached the age of puberty, i.e. baaligh?

Answer: He is not liable for the Fitrah of his wife and his children who
are Aaqil and Baaligh, even if they are cripple i.e. disabled and even
though he may be responsible for their provisions. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Question: If a person paid the Fitrah of his wife and his Baaligh children without their permission, will it be counted as being discharged?

Answer: If a person paid the Fitrah of his wife and his Baaligh children
without their permission, it will be counted as being discharged, on
condition that the children are from his Ay’yal, i.e. his dependants. In
other words, the provisions, etc. of those children are his responsibility.
Otherwise, it will not be regarded as having been discharged if he does so,
on behalf of his children without their permission. If the wife paid the
Fitrah of her husband without his authority, it will not be discharged.
[Alamgiri, Raddul Muhtar]

Question: Is a person liable for the Fitrah of his parents?

Answer: One is not liable for the Fitrah of his mother, father, paternal
grandfather, paternal grandmother, and his Na-Baaligh brothers and for
that of his other relatives. In addition, he cannot pay it without their
authority. [Alamgiri]

Question: Is the quantity of Fitrah the same in different items or does it differ?

Answer: The quantity of Sadaqa e Fitr is half Sa’ of wheat or its flour, or
Sittu (parched drink). One Sa’ of Dates, or Raisins or Barley or its flour or
Sittu. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Question: In giving Fitrah is it dependent on the price when giving the actual items?

Answer: If wheat, barley, dates, and raisins are given (as Fitrah), then this
does not depend on the value (price), for example, if half a Sa’ of good
quality barley which is equal to the value of one Sa’ of barley, or quarter
Sa’ pure wheat which in value is equivalent to half Sa’ of wheat, or half Sa’
dates which are equivalent in value to half Sa’ barley or half Sa’ wheat is
given, then all of this is impermissible. Only that quantity will be counted,
which has been given. He is still liable to pay the rest and he should pay
this. [Alamgiri]

If a person gives half Sa’ of barley and quarter Sa’ wheat or if he gave half
Sa’ dates, it is regarded as permissible. [Alamgiri, Raddul Muhtar]
If wheat and barley are mixed together and the quantity of wheat is more,
then half Sa’ should be given, otherwise, one Sa’ must be given. [Raddul
Muhtar]

Question: Is it more virtuous to give wheat or barley, or the value of it in cash?

Answer: Instead of giving wheat and barley, it is more virtuous to give its
flour and even more virtuous than this is to give its value (in cash). One
may either give the value of the wheat or the value of the barley or the
value of dates and in a time of shortage, it is better to give the actual
thing instead of giving its value. If one gave bad quality barley or wheat,
then he should pay the balance which is the price difference of good
quality wheat or barley. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Question: What is the rule if a person wishes to give the Sadaqa e Fitr through some other item such as rice or corn etc.?

Answer: If one wishes to discharge his Fitrah by way of something other
than the four items which have been stipulated, such as rice, corn, millet, or some other grain, or by way of something else, then he will have to
consider the price. In other words, these items should be equivalent to
the price of half Sa’ wheat or one Sa’ barley. If he gives bread, then even
in this case the price will be considered, even if it is made from wheat or
barley. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri]

Question: Can Fitrah be paid in advance?

Answer: To pay the Fitrah in advance is absolutely permissible as long as
that person is present, on whose behalf it is being paid. This is even if he
pays it before Ramadaan and if he was not a Maalik-e-Nisaab at the time
when it was being paid (on his behalf), so in this case, the Fitrah will be
valid. However, it is more virtuous (preferred) to pay it after Subho Saadiq on the day of Eid and before going towards the Eid Gah. [Durr-eMukhtar, Alamgiri]

Question: Does the Fitrah have to be given to one needy person or can it be shared?

Answer: It is best to give the Fitrah of one person to one Miskeen (needy
person) and if it was split between a few people, then this is also
permissible. Similarly, it is unanimously permissible to give one Miskeen
the Fitrah of numerous people, even though they may all be mixed
together. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Question: Who are the recipients of Fitrah, i.e. to whom can it be given?

Answer: The recipients of Sadaqa e Fitr are the same as those who are the
recipients of Zakat. In other words, you may give Fitrah to those to
whom you may give Zakat, and you are not permitted to give Fitrah to
those whom you are not permitted to give Zakat to, with the exception
of an ‘Aamil’ (Zakat Collector appointed by the Islamic State), because
he is permitted to accept Zakat and not Fitrah. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul
Muhtar]

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