Online Image Converter | PNG to JPG

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?>


Bahaar Vol.16

Bahaar E

Shariat

Volume 16

[Islamic Morals & Etiquettes]

Comprising approximately 800 Hadith & 550 Laws of Fiqh

Compiled By

Sadrush Shariah Hazrat Allama Maulana Mufti Mohammed Amjad Ali Aazmi Razvi ؓ

Translated into English through the Blessings of Ghaus-ul-Waqt Huzoor Mufti-e-Azam Hind ؓ

By a humble servant of Allah Muhammad Afthab Cassim al-Qaadiri Razvi Noori

Published FOR

Free Distribution

By : IMAM MUSTAFA RAZA RESEARCH CENTRE OVERPORT, DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA

All Rights Reserved

No part of this publication may be produced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying or otherwise without the prior permission of the Copyright Owner.

Second Edition : 1000 copies Islamic Date : Muharram 1435 English Date : November 2013

Author: Qadi Sadrush Shariah al-Qaadiri

Translator: Muhammad Afthab Cassim al- Qaadiri Razvi Noori ISBN 978-0-9870100-1-8

The Publishers

Imam Mustafa Raza Research Centre

P.O. Box 70140, Overport, 4067 Durban, South Africa

Offices

28 Clayton Road, Overport, Durban Tel/Fax: 031 2081045

Email: [email protected] Website: www.noori.org

Contribute towards a noble course: For those brothers and sisters who wish to contribute towards our humble efforts, our Banking Details are as follows:

Name : Imam Mustafa Raza Research Centre Bank : Nedbank

Acc No : 2034044606

Branch : Sydenham

Code : 103409

Sponsor the Printing of a Book for Esaal-E-Sawaab

Contact us if you wish to sponsor the printing of a book for the Esaale Sawaab of the marhooms in your family. Sponsor the printing of a book and send the sawaab to your marhoom family members. This is Sawaab-e-Jaariyah and a means of educating the Ummat. Knowledge is Power!

Contents

Dedication

Dua by Huzoor Taajush Shariah Dua by Huzoor Muhadith-E-Kabeer Dua by Mujahid-E-Ahle Sunnat Introduction to Bahaar-E-Shariat Translators Note

The Importance of Fiqh &

An Introduction to Imam Azam A Brief Account of the Author

Important Shar’i Terminology 36

Lawful and Unlawful 41

Chapter 1: The Etiquettes of Eating 43

Chapter 2: Etiquettes of Drinking Water 75

Chapter 3: Walima &Entertaining Guests 85

Chapter 4: Rules Regarding Dishware Crockery 97

Chapter 5: Reliability Of Khabar (A Report / News) 103

Chapter 6: Attire (Clothing) 109

Chapter 7: The Amaama (Turban) 137

Chapter 8: Wearing Shoes 141

Chapter 9: Rings and Jewellery 145

Chapter 10: Covering Dishware & Going to 155

Chapter 11: Etiquettes of Sitting, Sleeping & Walking 159

Chapter 12: Looking and Touching 171

Chapter 13: Seeking Permission to Enter A House 191

Chapter 14: Conveying Salaam (Greeting) 199

Chapter 15: Shaking Hands, Embracing & Kissing 219

Chapter 16: Sneezing and Yawning 233

Chapter 17: Purchase and Sales 241

Chapter 18: Virtues of Reciting the Glorious Qur’an 251

Chapter 19: Respect for the Qur’an and Other Books 267

Chapter 20: Etiquettes of the Musjid and the Qibla 273

Chapter 21: Visiting the Sick & Treatment 279

Chapter 22: Amusement & Games (I.E. Entertainment) 291

Chapter 23: Poetry 299

Chapter 24: The Evils of Lies 303

Chapter 25: Controlling the Tongue, Backbiting 311

Chapter 26: Malice and Jealousy 343

Chapter 27: The Disapproval Of Oppression (Zulm) 351

Chapter 28: Anger And Pride (Arrogance) 355

Chapter 29: Separation & Severing Ties 361

Chapter 30: Fostering Civil Relationships 363

Chapter 31: Compassion to Children & Orphans 381

Chapter 32: The Rights of Neighbours 387

Chapter 33: Compassion towards Allah’s Creation 395

Chapter 34: Gentleness, Modesty & Virtuous Ways 401

Chapter 35: Companionship of the Pious 405

Chapter 36: Enmity & Friendship for Sake Of Allah 409

Chapter 37: Cutting the Hair and Clipping Nails 415

Chapter 38: Circumcission 429

Chapter 39: Adornment (Beautification) 433

Chapter 40: Keeping Names 443

Chapter 41: Competing 455

Chapter 42: Earning 463

Chapter 43: Commanding Right & Forbidding Evil 467

Chapter 44: Knowledge and Education 479

Chapter 45: Hypocritical Showiness & Pursuit of Fame 499

Chapter 46: Etiquettes of Visiting the Graves 515

Chapter 47: Esaal-E-Sawaab 521

Chapter 48: Virtuous Assemblies 527

Chapter 49: The Etiquettes of Travelling 535

Chapter 50: Miscellaneous Issues 541

References

Dua by Janasheen Huzoor Mufti-e-Azam Huzoor Taajush Shariah,

Rahbar-e-Tareeqat Ash Shaykh Mufti Mohammed Akhtar Raza Khan Qaadiri Azhari Qibla

ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟﺍﻦﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍﷲﺍﻢﺴ

Choicest and Countless Blessings upon our Beloved Prophet 

and His Holy Offspring and Companions

I have been told that Maulana Afthab Qasim has translated some volumes of “Bahaar-e-Shariat”, the great work of the great scholar Sadrush Shariah, Maulana Allama Amjadi Ali Qaadiri Razavi Aazami.

May Allah accept this work and give him reward for his efforts.

image

Mohammed Akhtar Raza Qaadiri

29th Shabaan Al Moazzam 1431 Hijri [Madina Tayyaba]

Dua by Mumtazul Fuqaha Janasaheen Huzoor Sadrush Shariah, Huzoor Muhadith-e-Kabeer Allama Mufti Zia- ul-Mustafa Qaadiri Amjadi Qibla

ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟﺍﻦﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍﷲﺍﻢﺴ

ﺑﺍدﺎﺑ ﺑدﺎﺘﻤﻟﺍ ﺑﺎﺤﺻﺍو ﻟﺍ ﻋو ﻴ ﻧ ﻋةﻮﻠﺼﻟﺍو ﻴﻟﻮﻟﷲ ﺪﻤﺤﻟﺍ ﺪﻌ ﺎﻣﺍ

The Kitaab before me, ‘Bahaar-e-Shariat’ is an exceptionally beautiful English translation. The book consists of a vast number of Shariah Rulings, to solve the issues and needs of people which present themselves in their daily lives. The one who practices and acts upon the Rulings and Laws mentioned in this book will be able to fulfil his necessary requirements and is also able to guard himself in an Islamic mould, it is this which is the true objective in life.

Hazrat Maulana Afthab Cassim Saaheb deserves to be commended, for the sentiment in his heart to inculcate true Islamic teachings amongst the English speaking Muslims and by doing so; he has fulfilled the debt (i.e. the obligation) of the Ulama. (I pray that) Allah grants his efforts the acceptance and gratitude that it deserves, granting him a generous reward (Aameen). Maulana has compassion and sensitivity in his heart in regards to keeping the Muslim Community established

and steadfast. It is for this reason that he is always absorbed in writing and compiling Deeni books and engrossed in the translation and compilation of numerous reliable Kitaabs, such as ‘Kanz ul Imaan’ and Bahaar-e-Shariat which he has translated in eloquent English.

He has also published the translations of numerous books in English, allowing them to reach the homes of the English speaking populace, causing the waves of Islam to rise passionately within the hearts of thousands of people.

(I pray that) Allah grants Maulana superb reward and grants him countless blessings in all accomplishments in his age and in his religious affairs, granting him acceptance. (Aameen)

image

Faqeer Zia-ul-Mustafa Qaadiri

15th Ramadaan-ul-Mubaarak 1431 Hijri

Dua by Mujahid-e-Ahl-e-Sunnat, Hazrat Allama Sayed Shah

Turab-ul-Haq Qaadiri Razvi Noori

ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟﺍﻦﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍﷲﺍﻢﺴ

I was delighted to hear that the very diverse book ‘Bahaar-e-Shariat’, by Sadrush Shariah Badrut Tariqah Hazrat Allama Hakeem Muhammad Amjad Ali Aazmi ﻪﲪﺮﻟﺍ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ has been translated into English by Hazrat Maulana Afthab Cassim Saaheb and is about to be published. Since the mother tongue of the young Faadil is English, this translation will definitely benefit those who read English. Even though the translator has already translated other volumes of Bahaar-e-Shariat but because Volume 16 deals with laws relating to our daily lives and to Islamic Morals and Etiquettes that are beneficial to both the experts and the general masses, it was published first. In translating Bahaar e Shariat, the translator has fulfilled a great need of the English speaking Muslims, especially those in South Africa and in other countries where English is spoken. Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Afthab Cassim Saaheb, has also translated many parts of the world renowned Kanz ul Imaan, the world renowned Translation of the Qur’an by A’la Hazrat Imam Ahmed Raza Khan Muhadith-e-Bareilvi ﻪﲪﺮﻟﺍ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ.

It is my earnest Dua that Almighty Allah accepts these efforts of Maulana, through the blessing of His Beloved Prophet  rewarding him abundantly with a blessed reward.

ﻢﻴﻠﺴﺘﻟﺍوةﻮﻠﺼﻟﺍﻞﻀﻓﺍ ﻟﺍٰ ٰ ﻋو ﻴﻠﻋﻢﻳ ﺍ ﻧﮦﺎﺠﺑ ﻣﺁ ﻤﺛ ﻣﺁ

Sayyid Shah Turabul Haq Qaadiri

Ameer Jamaát-e-Ahl-e-Sunnat, Pakistan, Karachi

An Introduction to Bahaar-e-Shariat

By Hazrat Maulana Qaisar Ali Razvi Misbahi

Bahaar-e-Shariat is the dynamic work of Khalifa-e-A’la Hazrat Sadrush Shariah Badrut Tariqah Faqih-e-Azam Hazrat Allama Maulana Ash Shah Amjad, Muhadith-e-Ghoswi ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ. Bahaar-e-Shariat is without doubt an ‘Encyclopaedia of Hanafi Fiqh’ which has been a means of direction for the Muslims for the last 95 years. Today, there is hardly a Darul Ifta that does not carry a copy of Bahaar-e-Shariat. With the exception of Darul Iftas, there are also numerous Mosques the world-over that have classes in which the Bahaar-e-Shariat is taught to the worshippers; numerous Muslim Colleges and Universities in the World have introduced Bahaar-e-Shariat as a part of the syllabus for those studying to become Ulama. Undoubtedly, in the present time, there has not been any other Book of Fiqh that has been written in the Urdu language, which compares to Bahaar-e-Shariat. The world-renowned ‘Fatawa Alamgiri’ was compiled by the devoted efforts of hundreds of the most learned Ulama of the time but Qadi Sadrush Shariah

..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ compiled a voluminous book like Bahaar-e-Shariat single handedly. This great and memorable service of Faqih-e-Azam Qadi Sadrush Shariah

..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ is of such magnitude, that the Muslim Ummah will forever remain indebted to him. 17 Volumes were originally written by Sadrush Shariah

..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ and due to ill health, he was not able to go any further, so the last three Volumes were written by his students on his request. Bahaar-e- Shariat is divided into volumes in the following format:

Volume 1 Book of Imaan and Aqaa’id (Correct Beliefs) Volume 2 Book of Tahaarat (Purification)

Volume 3 Book of Salaah (Prayer)

Volume 4 Book of Salaah, Book of Illness & Death Volume 5 Book of Zakaat (Alms)

Volume 6 Book of Hajj (Pilgrimage)

Volume 7 Book of Nikah (Marriage)

Volume 8 Book of Talaaq (Divorce)

Volume 9 Book of Slaves, Oaths, Expiation & Punishment

Volume 10 Book of Abandoned Children, Unclaimed Property, Missing Person, Partnerships & Appropriations

Volume 11 Book of Sales

Volume 12 Book of Guarantees, Transfer of Debt, Judiciary, Evidence & Testimony

Volume 13 Book of Claims, Admissions

Volume 14 Book of Muzaribat, Deposits, Loans, Gifts, Hiring

Volume 15 Book of Compulsions, Inhibition, Partitions, Cultivation, Sacrificing (Zibah), Halaal & Haraam Animals, Qurbani, Aqeeqah,

Volume 16 Book of Morals & Etiquettes

Volume 17 Book of Intuitions, Wastelands, Pawns Volume 18 Book of Offences, Reprisal, Blood money Volume 19 Book of Bequests

Volume 20 Book of Inheritance

Issues in Bahaar e Shariat have been explained in the light of Qur’an and Hadith, in a very simple manner, thus making it beneficial for the general public and for the professionals alike. Allah bless the custodian of Maslak-e- A’la Hazrat, the embodiment of knowledge and sincerity, the Khalifa of Huzoor Taajush Shariah, our beloved Hazrat Allama Maulana Muhammad Afthab Cassim Sahib Qaadiri Razvi Noori, who recognised a very important necessity of the time and translated the above mentioned Book into the English language. In carrying out this memorable service, he has presented such an everlasting gift particularly to the Muslims of South Africa and to Muslims the world-over which the Men of Knowledge and Intellect will be proud of for centuries to come. This is not my devotion but it is a fact, that the amount of effort that Hazrat Maulana Afthab Cassim, Head of Imam Mustafa Raza Research Centre has put into propagating and publicising the teachings of Maslak-e-A’la Hazrat through writing, publishing books in English and through other endeavours, in such a short period of time, is itself a unique service. This is the result of his unselfish and sincere efforts, together with the blessings and the Duas of Huzoor Taajush Shariah Qibla and Huzoor Muhadith-e-Kabeer Qibla. It is my sincere Dua in the Court of Almighty Allah, that Allah Almighty blesses Hazrat Maulana Sahib Qibla with long life and good health. Aameen

A Seeker of Duas

Muhammad Qaisar Ali Razvi Misbahi

Khateeb & Imam Musjid-e-Khalid, Unit 9, Chatsworth

Translator’s Note (Second Edition)

ْ ﻠﺳ ْ ﻟ ﺍو ء ﺎﻴ ْﻧ ﻻْ ﺍ

ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟﺍ ﻦﻤٰ ﺣﺮﻟﺍﷲﺍﻢﺴ-:

ٰ ﻋ م ﻼﺴ ﻟﺍو ةﻮٰﻠﺼ ﻟﺍو ْ ﺎﺸ ﻟﺍﺪ ﻤْ ﻤﻟ ﺎﻌ ْ ﺍﺏ ر ﻟﺪ ﻤْ ْ

ْ ﻌ ﻤ ْ ﺑﺎﺤ ْ ﺍو ٰ و

All Praise is to Allah, Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds. Durood and Salaams upon the Leader of the Ambia and Mursaleen  and upon his Noble Family and Illustrious Companions. Bahaar-e-Shariat is the distinguished masterpiece of the eminent and celebrated Khalifa of the Mujad’did-e-Deen-o-Mil’lat A’la Hazrat Ash Shah Imam Ahmed Raza Khan Qaadiri ؓ and the great Faqih of the era, Sadrush Shariah Qadi Hakeem Allama Abul Ulaa Amjad Ali Aazmi Razvi ؓ. By the Grace of Allah and the Mercy of the Holy Prophet  Volume 16 of this masterpiece is in your hands. I must thank Almighty Allah through the Wasila of the Beloved Rasool  for affording me the opportunity to translate this distinguished work of Huzoor Sadrush Shariah ؓ. The articles which follow in this book will introduce Huzoor Sadrush Shariah ؓ and Bahaar-e-Shariat to you in greater detail. Alhumdulillah, I have been working on the translation of the entire Bahaar-e-Shariat for the past few years and this translation is now in the process of being published. I sincerely pray that Almighty Allah blesses me with the strength to complete this honourable task, through the Wasila of Nabi-e-Kareem  and through the Karam of Huzoor Ghaus-e-Azam ؓ and all our Masha’ikh-e-Kiraam. Like all my other translations, I have tried to keep the language and the manner of translation very simple, so that the readers may find the book simple to understand, as the aim of translating a document is so that it is easily understood. Readers will find footnotes on many pages, which explain important terms and other important points that required further explanation. All verses of the Holy Qur’an have also been referenced with the Surah and Ayat number. I have also included in this book an introduction to Fiqh and Imam Azam Abu Hanifa ؓ who is the Imam of the Hanafis. This will allow us to better appreciate the importance of acquiring knowledge of Fiqh. It must also be noted that all the laws mentioned in this book are in accordance with the Hanafi School of Fiqh. If

there is any shortcoming in this book, it should be attributed to the translation and should not be attributed to the eminent author, Sadrush Shariah in any way. I must place on record my special thanks and appreciation to Murshid-e-Kaamil Huzoor Taajush Shariah Rahbar-e- Tariqat Hazrat Allama Mufti Mohammed Akhtar Raza Khan Qaadiri Azhari Qibla; Mumtaz-ul-Fuqaha Huzoor Muhadith-e-Kabeer Allama Zia-ul- Mustafa Qaadiri Amjadi Qibla and Mujaahid-e-Ahl-e-Sunnat, Hazrat Allama Sayed Shah Turabul Haq Qaadiri Qibla for their special Duas and words of encouragement. I would further like to thank all those who have supported us morally and financially, in the publishing of this book. In doing so, I must firstly thank my beloved parents Haji Cassim Goolam Rasool and Hajiya Khadija Goolam Rasool for there valuable duas and my wife Fathima Cassim for her moral support. I must thank all those who assisted with this second addition and I would have failed in my duty in doing so if I do not thank Brother Muhammad Rukhsar Qaadiri Amjadi for the lengthy hours he put in to proofread this book before it went to press. Allah reward him immensely for his sincere and true efforts. Aameen

I must also thank Shehzada-e-Taajush Shariah Hazrat Allama Asjad Raza Khan; son in-law of Huzoor Taajush Shariah Hazrat Allama Mufti Shuaib Raza, Shehzada-e-Sadrush Shariah Allama Mufti Jamaal Mustafa and my dear colleague Allama Maulana Arif Barkaati for their kind support and duas. I would also like to thank Hazrat Maulana Turab Ali al-Qaadiri Razvi and Hazrat Maulana Qaisar Ali Razvi for their continuous support and encouragement; and to all the other Ulama who sent their congratulatory messages and Duas on the publishing of this book. May Allah through the blessing of Rasoolullah  reward all those who assisted in any way possible in making this publication a success, with a befitting reward. Aameen

Sag-e-Mufti-e-Azam

Muhammad Afthab Cassim al-Qaadiri Razvi Noori Imam Mustafa Raza Research Centre Overport, Durban, South Africa

The Importance of Fiqh & A Brief Introduction to Imam Azam Abu Hanifa

Compiled from the Book ‘Imam Azam Abu Hanifa’ By Mujaahid-e-Ahl-e- Sunnat, Hazrat Allama Sayed Shah Turab-ul-Haq Qaadiri Razvi Noori

Fiqah refers to Islamic Jurisprudence and is the explanation of the Shariah in the light of the Qur’an and Sunnah. There are four well-known schools of Jurisprudence, namely; Hanafi, Shafi’I, Hambali and Maliki. Fiqh plays a very important part in the life of every Muslim. The learned Jurists (Fuqaha) have derived the important rulings of the Shariah based on the commands of Qur’an and Sunnah. The importance of Fiqh and the excellence in understanding the Deen has been mentioned clearly in the Holy Qur’an and the Hadith.

Fiqh in the Light of the Qur’an

Intellect, acumen and understanding are great blessings of Allah. It is necessary for a Muslim to be blessed with these if he wishes to understand the Holy Qur’an, The Hadith and the secrets and laws that have been mentioned therein. Almighty Allah says

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‘Verily, in it are signs for those who understand’ [Surah 30 Verse 24] In another verse of the Holy Qur’an Allah ta’ aala says

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‘Verily, in it are signs for those who deliberate.’ [Surah 30, Verse 21]

Almighty Allah says

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‘And We present these examples for the people, so that they may contemplate’

[Surah 59 Verse 21] Allah Ta’aala says;

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‘Undoubtedly, we have explained the signs in detail; for those who understand.’

[Surah 6 Verse 98]

The above mentioned verses of the Holy Qur’an make it very clear that to attain Tafaquh fid Deen, i.e. proper understanding and appreciation of the Deen; one has to be blessed with intellect and the capability to understand. Those who have been blessed with the knowledge of Deen and especially with the knowledge of Fiqh are those who have been bestowed with special blessings by Allah. The Holy Qur’an makes it very clear that those with knowledge and those who are unaware are not alike. Almighty Allah says

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‘(O Beloved) Say you; Are those who know and those who know not equal? Surely, it is the wise alone that recognize the guidance.’ [Surah 39 Verse 9]

Almighty Allah says

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‘And he, who has been blessed with wisdom, has surely been blessed with great virtue.’ [Surah 2 Verse 269]

It must be noted that the Mufasireen (commentators of the Qur’an) have mentioned that wherever in the Qur’an the mention of Wisdom has come, it refers to the knowledge of Fiqh. The importance of Fiqh, i.e. understanding the Deen is also evident from this verse of the Holy Qur’an. Almighty Allah says

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‘And it is not possible for all the believers to go out (at once); then why should a delegation not come forth from every grouping, so that they may attain the understanding of Religion, thereafter returning to their people, warning them, in the hope that they may remain guarded. [Surah 9 Verse 122]

Whilst explaining this verse of the Holy Qur’an, Sadrul Afaadil Allama Sayyid Na’eemud’deen Muradabadi ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ says; ‘It is not necessary for every person to become an Aalim or Faqih. However, every individual has to attain sufficient knowledge to be able to differentiate between that which is lawful, unlawful, to know what Fard is and what Waajib is. To acquire this amount of knowledge is Fard-e-Ain upon every Muslim and to acquire more knowledge than this is Fard-e-Kifaayah. It has been mentioned in the Hadith, that it is Fard upon every Muslim to acquire knowledge (of Deen).’ [Tafseer Khaza’inul Irfaan]

The Excellence of a Faqih in the Light of Hadith

Up this point we have mentioned the importance of Fiqh in the light of the Holy Qur’an. This has been further explained and clarified in the Hadith

Shareef

ْ ﻟﺍ

ْ ﻔ ﺍً ْ ﺧ

ﺑ ﷲ ﺍ ﺪ ْ ﻳ ﻦﻣ

Hazrat Ameer Mu’awiyah ؓ has

reported that the Beloved Rasool  said ‘If Allah wills to bestow someone with special virtue; He makes him a Faqih of the Religion’. [Bukhari, Muslim, Mishkaat]

ﺍﻮْ ﻘﻓ ﺍذ ﺍ م ﻼﺳ

ﻻْ ﺍ ﻢْ رﺎﻴ ﺧﺔ

ﻠ ﺎﺠ

ﻟْ ﺍ ﻢْ رﺎﻴ ﺧ

Hazrat Abu Hurairah ؓ reported that Rasoolullah  said; ‘Those who were good in the days of ignorance are also good in Islam, if they have understanding of the Deen.’ [Bukhari, Muslim, Mishkaat]

In this Hadith, Rasoolullah  mentioned that people are bestowed with being better, on the basis of Fiqh, i.e. on the basis of their understanding of their Deen. This also proves that according to Rasoolullah , one of the best qualities in a person is for him to have knowledge of Fiqh. Once the Holy Prophet  made the following Dua for Hazrat Abdullah ibn Ab’bas

ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر by saying; ْ ﻟﺍ

Religion [Bukhari]

ْ

ﻠ ﻟﺍ O Allah! Make him a Faqih of the

Hazrat Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر says that Rasoolullah  said

ﺑﺎﻋ

ْ ﺍ ﻦﻣ

نﺎﻄ ﻴْ ﻟﺍ ٰ ﺷ ﺍﺪٌ ﺣﺍو ٌْ ﻘﻓ

‘One Faqih is more superior over shaitaan than a thousand worshippers.’

[Tirmizi, Ibn Majah, Mishkaat]

From this Hadith it is evident that a single Faqih (Jurist) is more powerful over shaitaan than a thousand devout worshippers. The reason for this is that due to the knowledge which Allah has bestowed upon him and due to his understanding of the Deen he is able to recognise and avoid the traps and the trickery of shaitaan. In reality, he becomes the one who assist others to be protected from the trickery and deception of shaitaan. In Ilm- ul-Hadith, there are two things that are fundamental. The first being, the authenticity of the chain of transmission and its narration; the second being its meaning and understanding it. The Muhaditheen of the Ummah memorised and preserved the words and chain of transmission of the Hadith, whereas the distinguished Fuqaha carried the responsibility of understanding its true meaning and wisdom. It should also be noted that the distinguished Fuqaha also have complete expertise and proficiency in

the subject of Hadith. One incident pointing to the importance and excellence of the Fuqaha is as follows: Khateeb Baghdadi mentions that a Group of Muhaditheen were present when a woman who used to bathe deceased females came forth and asked a question, ‘Can a female who is menstruating give Ghusl to a female who has passed away or not?’

Imam Yahya bin Mu’een, Abu Hatheema, Zuhair bin Harb and Khalf bin Saalim etc. who are regarded amongst distinguished Muhaditheen ﷲﺍ ﻢ ﻤﺣر were present there. Each one of them began to look at the other and none of them was able to give an answer immediately. At that moment, Imam Abu Thaur ..ﻴﻠﻋ ﷲﺍ ﺔﻤﺣر who with the exception of being a Muhadith was also a Mujtahid and a Faqih, passed by. The lady approached him and queried regarding the said issue. He said, ‘Yes, a female who is menstruating is permitted to give Ghusl to a deceased female.’ The reason being that once Rasoolullah  said to Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر ‘Your menstruation is not in your hand’. It is also mentioned in the Hadith that whilst in the condition of Haidh, Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر used to sprinkle water in the hair of the Prophet  and she would comb a path in his hair. So, if in such a condition, water can be poured onto the head of a living person then why can a deceased not be given Ghusl?’ When the distinguished Muhaditheen heard this Fatwa of Imam Abu Thaur ..ﻴﻠﻋ ﷲﺍﺔﻤﺣر they began to discuss the chain of transmission of the Hadith he had mentioned, mentioning who its narrators were and how it was narrated. When the woman heard this, she said ‘Where were you all this while?’ In other words, she tried to say that if that were the case, why then did they not give the answer’. [Tareekh-e- Baghdad Volume 6 Page 67]

Imam Azam Abu Hanifa

All that has been mentioned up to this point makes the importance of Fiqh and the status of the Fuqaha very evident. It must be noted that amongst the Four Great Imams of Fiqh, the most superior and blessed status has been afforded to Imam Abu Hanifa and it is for this reason that even the greatest Imams in History have referred to him as Imam-e-Azam ؓ.

The Imam of the Shafi’i Madhab, Hazrat Sayyiduna Imam Ash Shafi’i ؓ

says:

ﻻ و

ﻠْ ﻌ ﻟْ ﺍ ْ

ْ

ﺒ ﻛ

ْﺮﻈ ﻨْ

ْ ﻟ ﻦﻣ

ﻔ ﻴْ ﻨﺣ

ْ '.

ْ ﻔ ﻟْ ﺍ ل

ﺎﻴ ﻋ س ﺎﻨﻟﺍ

‘All the Ulama and Fuqaha amongst the people are the descendants of Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ in the issue of Fiqh and Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ is the distant ancestor. Without reading and studying his books neither can anyone become a big Aalim nor can he become a Faqih.’

Imam Abu Hanifa Nu’man bin Thaabit ؓ was born in Kufa. There is a difference of opinion amongst the Ulama regarding the year of his birth, some say 70 Hijri and some mention that he was born in the year 80 Hijri. Shareh Bukhari Mufti Muhammad Shariful Haq Amjad ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ says, ‘Many people give preference to his birth being in 80 Hijri but many of the Muhaqiqeen have given preference to 70 Hijri. According to this humble servant (Shareh Bukhari), 70 Hijri is the correct date.’ His name was Nu’man bin Thaabit and his title ‘Abu Hanifa’. Regarding the excellence of Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ, Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhadith Delhwi ؓ writes: ‘Some of the Ulama have mentioned that mention of Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ has been made in the Taurat. There is a narration from Hazrat Ka’ab bin Ahbar ؓ that in the Taurat which was revealed upon Hazrat Moosa &,;, we have found that Almighty Allah says; “There will be a Noor in the Ummat of Muhammadur Rasoolullah  and its title will be Abu Hanifa.” This is verified by the title Siraajul Ummat which has been afforded to Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ. [Taáruf Fiqh wa Tasawuf pg 225]

Allama Maufiq bin Ahmed Makki ؓ (575 A.H.) reports that it is narrated on the authority of Hazrat Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘A man will be born in my Ummat, who will be known as Abu Hanifa. He will be the lamp of my Ummah on the Day of Qiyaamah.’ [Manaaqib lil Maufiq pg 50]

Hazrat Anas ؓ reports that Rasoolullah  said, ‘A person will be born in my Ummat, who will be named Nu’man and his title will be Abu Hanifa. He will revive the Deen of Allah and my Sunnah.’ [Manaaqib lil Maufiq pg 55]

Imam Abu Hanifa is a Taabi’ee

A Taabi’ee is one who saw a Companion of the Holy Prophet  with the eyes of Imaan. This is the next level of excellence that has been awarded to anyone after the status of the Companions of Rasoolullah . Hazrat Imam Azam Abu Hanifa ؓ was afforded with the honour and the status of being a Taabi’ee. Allama Ibn Hajar Makki ؓ says, ‘It is reported from Imam Zahabi ؓ and proven from an authentic narration that as a child, Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ was blessed with seeing Hazrat Anas bin Maalik ؓ. He used to apply a reddish dye. Most of the Muhaditheen agree that a Taabi’ee is one who saw any Sahabi.’ [Al Khairaatul Hasaan pg 73]

One narration mentions that Hazrat Anas bin Maalik ؓ passed from this world in 90 Hijri and another narration mentions that he passed from this world in 93 Hijri. In both cases, it would be correct to accept that Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ did make ziyarat of him. When Hafiz Ibn Hajar Shafi’i was asked with regards to Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ being a Taabi’ee, he answered with the following words, ‘Imam Abu Hanifa was blessed with seeing a Mubaarak Jamaát of Sahaba-e-Kiraam. According to one narration he was born in 80 Hijri in Kufa. At that time, amongst the Sahaba-e-Kiraam that were present in Kufa, was Hazrat Abdullah ibn Abu Ufa ؓ. He either passed away in 88 Hijri or just after that. At the same time, Hazrat Anas bin Malik ؓ was in Basra. He passed from this world in 90 Hijri or just after that. Ibn Sa’ad has mentioned with a very authentic merit, that Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ saw Hazrat Anas bin Malik ؓ. With the exception of these Sahaba-e-Kiraam, numerous other Sahaba were present in numerous other cities at this time, who lived after this. Imam Suyuti ؓ says that Imam Abu Ma’shar Tabri Shafi’i ؓ mentioned Hadith in his books, which Imam Azam ؓ mentioned which he narrated from Sahaba-e-Kiraam ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر. He mentions that Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ met with the following seven companions of Rasoolullah :

1. Sayyiduna Anas bin Malik 2. Sayyiduna Abdulla bin Haarith bin Jaza’

3. Sayyiduna Jaabir bin Abdullah 4. Sayyiduna Mu’qil bin Yasaar

5. Sayyiduna Waathila ibnil Asqa’ 6. Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Unais

7. Sayyidatuna A’isha bint Ajrad o::ﻌﻤﺟﺍ ﻢ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ..ﻠ: ﻟﺍ ر

Imam Azam reported 3 Hadith from Hazrat Anas ؓ; 2 Hadith from Sayyiduna Waathila ؓ; and 1 Hadith each from Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Unais, Sayyidatuna A’isha bint Ajrad and Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Jaza’. He also reported a Hadith from Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Abi Ufa ؓ and all these Ahadith are reported other than this chain of transmission as well. [Tabayazus Sahifa pg 7] It is further mentioned in Durr-e-Mukhtar that Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ met with twenty companions of Rasoolullah  and it has been mentioned in Khulaasa Akmaal fi Asma’ir Rijaal that he saw 26 Sahaba-e-Kiraam. If we accept that Imam Azam Abu Hanifa ؓ was born in 80 Hijri then it must be noted that the following Sahaba-e-Kiraam were still physically in this world at that time in numerous cities. Those who are known to have been physically in this world in that time are:

  1. Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Abdul Qari [81 Hijri]

  2. Hazrat Taariq bin Shihaab Kufi [82 Hijri]

  3. Hazrat Umar bin Abu Salma [83 Hijri]

  4. Hazrat Waathil ibnil Asqa [83, 85 or 86 Hijri]

  5. Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaza’ [85 Hijri]

  6. Hazrat Amr bin Hareeth [85 Hijri]

  7. Hazrat Abu Umama Baahili [86 Hijri]

  8. Hazrat Hazrat Qabisah bin Zuwaib [86 Hijri]

  9. Hazrat Abdullah bin Abu Ufa [87 or 88 Hijri]

  10. Hazrat Utbah bin Abdus Salma [87 Hijri]

  11. Hazrat Miqdam bin Ma’di Kurb [87 Hijri]

  12. Hazrat Sahl bin Sa’ad [88 or 91 Hijri]

  13. Hazrat Abdullah bin Basr [88 or 96 Hijri]

  14. Hazrat Abdullah bin Tha’lba [89 Hijri]

  15. Hazrat Saa’ib bin Khilad [91 Hijri]

  16. Hazrat Saa’ib bin Yazid [91, 92 or 94 Hijri]

  17. Hazrat Mahmood bin Rabi’ [91 or 99 Hijri]

  18. Hazrat Malik bin Aus [92 Hijri]

  19. Hazrat Anas bin Malik [92, 93 or 95 Hijri]

  20. Hazrat Malik ibnil Hawareeth [94 Hijri]

  21. Hazrat Mahmood bin Lubaid [96 Hijri]

  22. Hazrat Abu Umama Ansari [100 Hijri]

  23. Hazrat Abu Tufail Aamir bin Waathila [102 or 110 Hijri]

  24. Hazrat Abul Badah [117 Hijri]

His Character

Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ possessed exemplary character and moral values. Abu Nu’aim ؓ says as follows, ‘Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ had a pleasant face. He was well dressed and fragrant and his gatherings were virtuous. He was a very caring, kind person and showed much affection and care towards his companions.’ Umar bin Ham’mad ؓ says, ‘He was very handsome and well dressed. He used a lot of fragrance. When he approached or when he emerged from his home, the scent of his fragrance would reach there even before he arrived.’ [Khateeb Baghdadi Vol 13 Page 330]

Hazrat Abdullah ibn-e-Mubaarak ؓ said to Hazrat Sufyan Thauri ؓ, ‘Hazrat Imam Azam Abu Hanifa ؓ remained miles away from committing gheebat. I have never ever heard of him backbiting in regards to any of his opponents.’ Sufyan ؓ said, ‘By Allah! He was a very intelligent person. He did not wish to place any such thing of his good deeds which would be a source of destroying his virtuous deeds.’ Once, a woman intended to sell a bail of silk fabric to him. He asked her regarding the price of the fabric. She mentioned that she would charge a 100 for it. He said that she was asking for a very minimal price as the fabric was much more valuable. The lady then said that she would charge 200. Again he objected and said that it was too cheap, so she increased the price by another 100. This went on, until the price reached 400. He said, ‘This is even more valuable than four hundred.’ She said, ‘Are you mocking me?’ He gave her 500 and then purchased the fabric. His piety and truthfulness benefited his business instead of plunging him into any loss. Subhaan’Allah! Look at the character and the manner in which Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ did business.

His Fear for Allah and Piety

Hafiz Ibn Hajar ؓ whilst discussing the piety and Allah fearing of Imam Abu Hanifa writes as follows in Al Khairatul Hasaan: ‘Asad bin Amr ؓ says that at night, the sound of Imam Azam Abu Hanifa’s weeping could be heard. He would weep to the extent that his neighbours would feel sad for him. Waqi’ؓ says that he was faithful and trustworthy and Allah’s Grandeur and Magnificence was well embedded in his heart. He gave

precedence to the Pleasure of Allah, over everything else and even if he had to be cut into pieces with a sword, he would not have left seeking the pleasure of his Creator. His Rub became so pleased with him, like he is pleased with an Abraar. Imam Azam Abu Hanifa ؓ was from amongst the Abraar.’ [Al Khairatul Hasaan page 12]

Hazrat Abdullah ibn Mubaarak ؓ says, ‘I have not seen a person more pious than Imam Azam Abu Hanifa ؓ. What can be said about such a person, before who heaps of wealth is placed, yet he does not even raise his eyes to look towards it. He was lashed for this reason but still he remained patient. What can be said about that person, who for sake of Allah’s Pleasure endured hardships but he did not accept wealth and the like and he did not desire (wealth or its like) like others usually do, for which people make hundreds of excuses and efforts to attain it. By Allah! He was different from all those scholars who desired that the world should follow them. He used to flee from it. [Manaaqib lil Maufiq] After presenting a lengthy discussion on Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ Imam Ibn Hajar Shafi’i ؓ says, ‘When he would perform his Namaaz at night then the sound of his tears falling on the grass mat could be heard, just as one hears the raindrops fall. The sign of his fasting could be seen in his eyes and on his face. (All I can say) is that, Allah have Mercy on him and be pleased with him.’ [Al Khairatul Hasaan]

His abstention from the company of the Rulers

Once, the Abbasi Khalifa sent him 200 Dinars. He returned it by saying, ‘I have no right over it’. Once, the Ameerul Mo’mineen of the era sent forth a beautiful servant to him but he did not accept. He said, ‘I do all my chores with my own hands. Thus, I have no need for a slave-girl (maid).’

Once, the Governor made a request to him by saying, ‘Sir! You should visit me every now and then, so that I too may acquire some benefit.’ He boldly replied, ‘What will I get from meeting with you? If you treat me with compassion then I will fall within your payroll and if you become upset with me and then distance me after granting me closeness then for me it is a means of embarrassment. So, I have no need for the wealth which you possess and none can rob me of the wealth (i.e. knowledge) which I possess.’

Love for His Parents

Even though he was blessed with such vast knowledge and excellence, Imam Abu Hanifa was a humble and affectionate personality. He showed dear love to his parents and honoured them with the honour that they deserved. His mother would often pity him due to the hardships he was forced to face in striving for the truth. Imam Azam Abu Hanifa ؓ personally mentions the following: ‘When I would be lashed (for speaking the truth), my mother would say to me; ‘Abu Hanifa! Knowledge has brought you to this level of endurance. Leave this knowledge and live the life of the ordinary people in the world.’ I said, ‘My Beloved Mother! If I have to leave knowledge, how then will I attain the Pleasure of Allah?’

Imam Abu Hanifa says, ‘I give out 20 Dirhams of khairaat (charity of good virtue) every Friday, for the Esaal-e-thawaab of my parents and I have taken a vow for this. I give 10 dirhams for my father and 10 dirhams for my mother.’ With the exception of this, he used to distribute other things as Sadqa on behalf of his parents as well. [Al Khairatul Hasaan 196]

Imam Azam’s Intelligence and Insight

Imam Azam ؓ was a very intelligent and wise personality. It was his intelligence and wisdom that complimented his personality. Imam Ali bin Aasim ؓ says, ‘If the intelligence of Imam Azam Abu Hanifa ؓ had to be weighed with the intelligence of half the people of the world then the intelligence of Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ would supersede them all.’ A few incidents relating to the intelligence of Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ are being presented below.

First Incident: A man had an argument with his wife and during the course of the argument; she had a cup of water in her hand and was walking towards him with it. He said, ‘If you drink water from that cup, then there are three Talaaqs upon you; if you drop it (pour it) onto the ground then too there are three Talaaqs upon you; and even if you give it to some other person to drink, there are three Talaaqs upon you.’ After his anger subsided, he realised what he had done and thus took his case before the

learned Ulama but none could find a solution to stop the Talaaq from applying on his wife. Finally, he went to Imam Azam Abu Hanifa ؓ and presented his case. He said, ‘Put a rag into the cup and soak the water into it. In this way, your condition will be fulfilled and your wife will be saved from Talaaq.’

Second Incident: There was a wealthy Raafdhi (Shia) residing in the city of Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ. He had an abundance of wealth. He always hosted gatherings but during these gatherings, he would audaciously claim that (Allah Forbid) Hazrat Uthman-e-Ghani ؓ was a Jew. Hazrat Imam Azam Abu Hanifa ؓ went to his home. He recognised Imam Azam ؓ based on his knowledge and standing in the community. Imam Azam ؓ commenced a conversation with him and whilst talking to him, he said; ‘I have brought a proposal of marriage for your daughter. He is the son of a Sayed and also a very wealthy person. He has memorised the Qur’an-e-Paak and he stays away for most parts of the night praying. In an entire night, he completes the recitation of the entire Qur’an. He is very afraid of Allah.’ When the Raafdhi heard this, he said, ‘Sir! It is very difficult to find a person of such standing. Please be swift in this arrangement. I do not want any delays in this. I have been in search of a son in-law like this.’ Imam Azam ؓ said, ‘There is however one issue. He has such a quality which you will not be pleased with.’ He asked what this was, so Imam Azam ؓ said, ‘He is a Jewish by faith.’ He said, ‘Being an Aalim, you are advising me to marry my daughter to a Jew!’ Imam Azam ؓ said; ‘If you are not willing to marry your daughter to a wealthy and reputable Jew then could Rasoolullah  have given two of his daughters into the marriage of someone if he was a Jew?’ On hearing what Imam Azam ؓ had to say, he immediately repented and changed his view in regards to Hazrat Uthman ؓ. These incidents and all that has been mentioned in this discussion point to the intelligence and wisdom of Imam Azam Abu Hanifa ؓ. There is no doubt that he is Imam Azam. Imam Abu Hanifa ؓ passed from this world in 150 Hijri.

We pray that Almighty Allah showers the rains of Mercy over his Holy Grave and blesses us through his Blessings and knowledge.

A Brief Account of The Author

Faqih-e-Azam Hind, Sadrush Shariah Hazrat Allama Muhammad Amjad Ali

نﺍﻮﺿﺮﻟﺍو

..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ

..ﻴﻠﻋ

was amongst one of the most prominent and illustrious

personalities of India. Huzoor Sadrush Shariah, Badrut Tariqat Hazrat Allama Shah Amjad Ali Aazmi the son of Hakim Jamaalud’deen, son of Maulana Khuda Bakhsh, son of Moulana Khairud’deen was born at a place known as Karimud’deen which is situated in the district of Ghosi, in the well known town of Azamgarh in India. His father and grandfather both were renowned scholars in Religious theology and expert specialists in Unani medicine. When his grandfather, Hazrat Maulana Khuda Bakhsh ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ went to perform Hajj, he received the permission for the recitation of Dala’il al- Khayrat in Madinatul Munawwarah from the Shaikhud Dalaa’il. He was also a great Saahib-e-Karaamat. He received his elementary education from his grandfather, thereafter studying under the watchful eye of elder brother Maulana Muhammad Siddique ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ. After completion of his elementary studies, he was enrolled for higher education at the Madrassa Hanafiya in Jaunpur. This was a very famous and reputable Islamic University in that time. There, he studied under the guidance of a very reputable and distinguished Aalim-e-Deen of the time, Jaami’ Ma’qulat Wa Manqulat, Hazrat Allama Maulana Hidayatullah Khan Rampuri Jaunpuri, who passed away in 1326/1908.

Maulana Hidayatullah Khan ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ was the student of the personality, who was known for first inspiring the Movement for Independence in India, namely; The Imamul Falsafa, Mujahid-e-Jalil, Hazrat Allama Fazl-e-Haq

Khayrabadi ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ. After observing his immense wisdom and acumen,

Ustaazul Asaatiza Allama Hidayatullah Khan, counted him amongst his most reputable students which can be better understood from the words of Allama Sayed Sulaiman Ashraf Bihari (Professor of the Religious Faculty at Aligarh Muslim University): Hazrat Ustaazul Asaatiza was kind and attentive towards all his students but he would place his special attention over three of his students. He used to say, ‘I wish to take whatever is in my heart and pass it on to these three students.’ (The 3 students being mentioned were Maulana Muhammad Siddique, Maulana Amjad Ali and Maulana Sulaiman Ashraf).

It is for this very reason that once his beloved teacher said as follows regarding him: ‘I managed to find one (true) student and that too, in my old age.’ After completion of his studies in Jaunpur, on the request of his teacher, he journeyed to Madrasatul Hadith in Pillibhit to specialise in Hadith where he studied Hadith at the feet of Hafizul Hadith, Hujjatul Asr Allama Wasi Ahmed Surti ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ who passed away in 1334/1916. He graduated and attained his Degree in 1320/1905. As a student, his teachers and management of the Madrassa acknowledged his acumen and intellect alike. This can be gathered from the report presented by the Director of the Madrassa which he had published in Tohfa-e-Hanafiya in Patna. The report reads as follows: ‘Alhumdulillah, Hazrat Maulana Maulvi Shah Muhammad Salaamatullah Saheb Rampuri took the exams for our students on the 6th of Zil Hijjah 1324. After completing the books of his course, Maulvi Amjad Ali also studied the Sihah Sit’ta, Musnad Shareef, Kitaabul Athaar Shareef, Mu’atta Shareef, Tahaawi Shareef with great enthusiasm and dedication throughout the year. He studied by both listening and reading and thus, excelled in his examination with distinction. The examiner was completely impressed with his ability, acumen, intellect and talent. The Dastaar was then tied on his head.’

After graduating and acquiring his degree, he was immediately engaged as the Principal of Madrassa Ahl-e-Sunnat which was one of the most reputable Madrassas in Patna, Bihar. The excellence and repute of this Madrassa can be understood from the fact that before the arrival of Huzoor

Sadrush Shariah

..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ

..ﻴﻠﻋ

illustrious personalities like the distinguished

student of Allama Fazl-e-Haq Khayrabadi, Allama Maulana Abdul Aziz

Mantaqi and Hafizul Hadith Huzoor Muhadith-e-Surti

..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ

..ﻴﻠﻋ

held the

positions of Shaikh-ul-Hadith at this Madrassa. The first book that he was asked to teach whilst at the Madrassa was ‘The Hidaya Volume 2’. He explained the issues presented therein with such proficiency and so clearly, that the Ulama and all those present there were astonished. The Manager of the Institute, Qazi Abdul Waheed awarded him the responsibility of handling all the Educational Affairs of the Madrassa. After the passing away of Qazi Abdul Waheed, he did not remain there for too long. He then journeyed to Lucknow where he studied ‘Ilm-ut-Tibb’ for two years. After completion of this course, he returned home and commenced serving the people by starting a clinic. His clinic began to progress successfully. When

Huzoor Muhadith-e-Surti ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ heard that Sadrush Shariah ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ had started practicing and had opened a clinic for this purpose, he became very sad. At this time, The Faqih of Faqihs of the Century, The Imam amongst Imams, the Great Reviver of Islam, A’la Hazrat Imam Ahl-e-Sunnat ؓ Imam Ahmed Raza Khan required the services of a teacher at the Darul-Uloom Manzar-e-Islam. Sadrush Shariah then left his clinic and proceeded to Bareilly. At Bareilly, he first served as a teacher. When Huzoor Sadrush Shariah intended to visit Bareilly Shareef from Pilliphit, Huzoor Muhadith- e-Surti ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ wrote a letter to A’la Hazrat, Imam Ahmed Raza Khan ؓ asking him to inspire him to continue in the field of Ilm-e-Deen. Within a few months, Mujaddid-e-Deen-o-Millat Imam Ahmed Raza Khan ؓ arranged for Sadrush Shariah to reside permanently in Bareilly Shareef. He was entrusted with many responsibilities by Imam Ahmed Raza Khan ؓ. Important affairs such as, The Educational Affairs of Madrassa Manzar-e- Islam, The management of Anjuman Ahl-e-Sunnat, The management of the printing press, arrangement of manuscripts, proofing of books that were being prepared for publishing, issuing Fatawa and dispatching important postage entrusted to him. Due to his potential and his devotion and sincerity, Imam Ahmed Raza ؓ looked at him with great respect and due to this he had immense trust and faith in him. After approximately fifteen years, he journeyed to Ajmer Shareef in 1343/1924 to take up the position as Principal at Darul Uloom Mu’eenia Uthmania. He remained there until 1350 and quenched the thirst of those who came in search of knowledge. The most intelligent and bright students travelled from all corners of the country to humble themselves before him, quenching their thirst for true knowledge and wisdom.

Shaykh-ul-Ulama Allama Ghulam Jilani Ghoswi writes: ‘The standard of education at Darul Uloom Mu’eenia excelled to such a high level, that it became famous all over. Students journeyed from the Northern Provinces, Bihar and Hyderabad etc. to acquire knowledge from him, after hearing of his manner of teaching. Those who lived in Ajmer Shareef say that never before did they see such an atmosphere and environment of learning which they saw in his era.’

He returned to Bareilly Shareef in 1351 and for 3 years he served as a teacher at the Darul Ifta. In 1354, Nawab Haji Ghulam Muhammad Khan

Sherwani, the Governor of Dadon Aligarh invited him to take up the post as principal at Madrassa Haafizia Sa’eedia which he accepted. He remained there for seven years and taught during this time with sincerity and devotion, producing dynamic and capable scholars. He was truly proficient in the art of teaching and instructing. With the exception of instructing the students through the customary books and the set books, he also taught them in other fields through other books as well. He taught the books that were part of the syllabus but at the same time he taught those books that were not part of the syllabus. He did this by explaining to students the footnotes and commentaries in regards to these books. He used to even spend time after Madrassa hours to tutor the students. He would even teach in the days when there was no Madrassa. His manner of teaching and instruction gained prominence throughout the country. He would explain absolutely difficult and intricate issues to the students in a very simple manner, that even a very weak student would be able to understand his explanation. There came a time when the Aligarh Muslim University intended to initiate a department which would specialise in Eastern education which would allow students to study right and achieve an M.A. and for this, they were in search of scholars who understood the current day situation and the manner of instruction in the current day classroom. Amongst those who were appointed to plan this faculty, was Sadrush Shariah ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ.

The Roving Ambassador of Islam Allama Abdul Aleem Siddiqi Meerati ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ presented the contents to a syllabus which he prepared, for correction and setting, to Huzoor Sadrush Shariah (alaihi rahma). Whilst delivering a discourse at the Annual Jalsa of Madrassa Haafizia Sa’eedia Maulana Habibur Rahman Sherwani paid tributes to the Allama Amjadi Ali ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ as a person and as a professional with these words: ‘There are only four or five teachers in the continent that I regard as completely proficient and appointed on merit, and Maulana Amjad Ali is amongst them. The fact that students are becoming Faazils at his hands and acquiring certificates of merit is clear evidence of his proficiency. He is not just a Maulvi by name.’

When there was the need to appoint a Principal for Darul Uloom Manzar-e- Islam, students were prepared and sent over to him for lessons. Huzoor

Hujjatul Islam Maulana Haamid Raza Khan ؓ observed his manner of teaching from a distance. After he had observed him teaching, he returned and said as follows: ‘When Maulana Amjad Ali was answering the students, it seemed like a vast sea that in which waves (of knowledge) were rising.’

It is the blessing of the teaching of Huzoor Sadrush Shariah ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ that those who are his students directly or indirectly can be found throughout the globe today propagating Islam. There is probably not a single Madrassa or Darul Uloom in the Indo-Pak sub-continent that does not have at least one teacher that has not attained his blessings. His works in the field of Fiqh are undoubtedly shining evidence of his services. Why should this not be so, when with the exception of his special intelligence and expertise, he was blessed with serving in the field of Jurisprudence as a Mufti under the guidance of such a great and expert Jurist and Imam of the era, as Mujadid-

e-Azam Imam Ahmed Raza

..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ

..ﻴﻠﻋ

a personality whose expertise and

proficiency in Fiqh is not only accepted by us but also the refuters. This is the reason that not only did Mujadid-e-Azam acknowledge and have full faith in his understanding of issues of Fiqh and in matters related to Fatawa. However, Imam Ahmed Raza Khan had full confidence in Allama Amjad Ali Khan on account of his diligence and competence in the mission entrusted to him.

Whilst paying tribute to his excellence, Imam Ahmed Raza Khan ؓ said: ‘You will find the quality of understanding the religion (Tafaqquh) to a greater degree in Maulvi Amjad Ali incomparable to others present here. The reason being that he is proficient in announcing, writing and examining the various Fatawa. He writes down what I say in response to the inquiries sought in this behalf. He has an adoptive nature and he grasps the point of the issue without much effort. He has acquired familiarity with methods and procedures which are an asset for him in this profession’ This alone shows that Imam Ahl-e-Sunnat acknowledged that Huzoor Sadrush Shariah’s proficiency as a Mufti and regarded him as being masterful in this regard. When the senior Ulama of the time would find difficulty in resolving any issue, they would present their problems to Huzoor Sadrush Shariah ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ.

Once, Maulana Israar-ur-Rahmaan Saaheb of Hyderbad Dakkan sent a query to him on the 18th of Rajab 1346 which consisted of a few issues that needed

to be resolved. In the beginning of his Istifta, he writes: ‘These issues are of such a nature that not every one will be capable to write a satisfactory answer to it. After much deliberation, I noticed that Almighty Allah, through His Grace and Blessing, and through the blessing of the Holy Prophet  made you worthy of this position. May Almighty Allah grant you abundance in your knowledge, age, blessings and may the Muslims benefit from your blessings. Aameen Thumma Aameen.’ Other learned and great personalities like Hazrat Maulana Ziaúd’deen Pillibhiti ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ, Imam- un-Nahw Allama Ghulam Jilani Meerati ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ and Khair-ul-Azkiya Maulana Ghulam Yazdani Ghoswi also referred to him whenever they faced issues in Fiqh etc which found difficult to resolve. Huzoor Sadrush Shariah ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ took Bai’at at the hands of the Mujadid-e-Deen-o-Millat Imam Ahl-e-Sunnat, A’la Hazrat Ash Shah Imam Ahmed Raza Khan ؓ. He was blessed with the Khilafat and the Wakaalat from Huzoor A’la Hazrat ؓ and great personalities like Hazrat Allama Hashmati Ali Khan ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ took the Bai’at of A’la Hazrat ؓ through the hands of Sadrush Shariah ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ. Imam Ahmed Raza Khan ؓ admired his effort and his sincerity and devotion at the Darul Ifta and in every other field that he partook in. He spent his days and nights working and sincerely striving for the betterment of the Ummah. It was due to this dedication and his striving sincerity that Imam Ahmed Raza ؓ said: ‘Maulana Amjad Ali Sahib is a work machine’

Sadrush Shariah

..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ

..ﻴﻠﻋ

contributed greatly to the the initiation and

finalisation of the world-renowned translation of the Holy Qur’an by Imam Ahmed Raza, entitled Kanz-ul-Imaan. It is regarded as the most unique Urdu translation of the Holy Qur’an. Huzoor Sadrush Shariah was fundamentally and psychologically capable as a religious scholar but he was also conversant with the politics of the day. Whenever and wherever the need arose, he defended and decorated the Muslims. Allah Almighty blessed Huzoor Sadrush Shariah with proficiency in many different sciences and branches of knowledge but he had an intrinsic inclination towards Tafseer, Hadith and Fiqh. His expertise in Fiqh is why Imam Ahmed Raza ؓ conferred the title ‘Sadrush Shariah’ to him. Huzoor Sadrush Shariah initially started writing marginal notes on the voluminous book of Imam Abu Ja’far Tahawi on Hadith, entitled ‘Sharh Ma’ani’ul Athar’ and in a short period of seven months, he completed a comprehensive annotation of more than 450

pages on this masterpiece. Another distinguished work of Huzoor Sadrush Shariah is his Fatawa Amjadia, which is in four volumes, comprising of several of his Fatawa. Bahaar-e-Shariat is that universally acclaimed book of Huzoor Sadrush Shariah which can be justifiably called the Encyclopaedia of Hanafi Fiqh.

Huzoor Sadrush Shariah wrote 17 parts of the 20 part book. The remaining three volumes were completed by his students. It must be noted that the world renowned book Fatawa-e-Alamgiri also known as Hindiya was compiled by the efforts of more than five hundred outstanding scholars at that time. Huzoor Sadrush Shariah on the other hand, wrote the famous Bahaar-e-Shariat single handedly. This book has been written in such a beautiful and simple manner that not only can the Ulama make use of it but even the general public is able to derive benefit through it.

A’la Hazrat Ash Shah Imam Ahmed Raza Khan ؓ personally listened to the first six parts of Bahaar-e-Shariat as Huzoor Sadrush Shariah recited it to him. After listening to the first six parts, Huzoor A’la Hazrat ؓ mentioned to Sadrush Shariah ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ that he had his blessings to continue and there was now no need to read it to him anymore. This was the confidence that Imam Ahmed Raza ؓ had in the work of Sadrush Shariah. Sadrush Shariah found time to do all this even though he spent most of his time instructing students. The students of Huzoor Sadrush Shariah ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ include some of the greatest Ulama of the time. Some of the names of his students are as follows:

  1. Sh’er Besha-e-Sunnat, Allama Hashmat Ali Khan

  2. Muhadith-e-Azam Pakistan, Mufti Sardar Ahmed

  3. Huzoor Mujahid-e-Millat, Allama Habibur Rahmaan

  4. Imam-un-Nahw Allama Sayyid Ghulam Jilani Meerati

  5. Hafiz-e-Millat Allama Abdul Aziz Muhaddith

  6. Amin-e-Shari’at, Maulana Rifaqat Hussain Muzafarpuri

  7. Shamsul Ulama Qadi Shamsud’deen Jaunpuri

  8. Khairul Azkiya Allama Ghulam Yazdani Aazmi

  9. Sayyidul Ulama Hazrat Sayed Aal-e-Mustafa Marehrawi

  10. Fakhrul Amasil Allama Muhammad Sulaiman

  11. Shaykh-ul-Hadith Hazrat Allama Abdul Mustafa Aazmi

  12. Allama Abdul Mustafa Azhari (son of Sadrush Shariah)

  13. Khalil-ul-Ulama Maulana Mufti Khalil Khan Barkaati

  14. Shaykh-ul-Ulama Hazrat Allama Ghulam Jilani Ghoswi

  15. Ra’is-ul-Muhaditheen Allama Mubinud’deen Amrohwi

  16. Abul Mahasin Allama Mohammad Mohsin

  17. Faqih-e-Azam Allama Mufti Sharif-ul-Haq Amjadi

  18. Hazrat Maulana Mohammed Ilyas Siyalkoti

  19. Hazrat Maulana Mufti Mohammed A’jaz Razvi

  20. Hazrat Maulana Mufti Waqarud’deen Amjadi

  21. Hazrat Maulana Taqaddus Ali Khan

There were also many great and blessed personalities in the time of Huzoor Sadrush Shariah who would be regarded as his contemporary Ulama. Some of the contemporary scholars in the time of Huzoor Sadrush Shariah were as follows:

  1. Sadrul Afadil Allama Sayyid Na’imud’deen Muradabadi

  2. Hujjatul Islam, Allama Hamid Raza Khan

  3. Mufti-e-Azam-e-Hind Allama Mustafa Raza Khan

  4. Malikul Ulama Allama Zafrud’deen Bihari

  5. Umdatul Mutakal’limin Sayyid Sulaiman Ashraf Bihari

  6. Hazrat Allama Sayyid Ahmed Ashraf ibn Ashrafi Miya

  7. Muhadith-e-Azam Hind Sayed Muhammad Kichauchavi

  8. Hazrat Maulana Hakim Barakat Tonki

  9. Hazrat Allama Wakil Ahmed Sikandarpuri

  10. Hazrat Allama Maulana Fadl-e-Haq Rampuri

  11. Hazrat Allama Mu’inud’deen Ajmeri

  12. Hazrat Maulana Noorul Hasan Rampuri

  1. Maulana Qadi Abdul Wahid Sahib

  2. Hazrat Allama Ziaud’deen Pilibhiti

  3. Mubaligh-e-Islam Allama Abdul Aleem Siddiqi Meerati

  4. Hazrat Maulana Sayyid Misbahul Hassan

Huzoor Sadrush Shariah ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ blessed some great and learned personalities with his Khirqa. In other words, he honoured them with being amongst his Khulafa. Some of the names of his Khulafa are as follows:

  1. Sher Besha-e-Sunnat, Allama Hashmat Ali Khan

  2. Muhadith-e-Azam Pakistan Maulana Sardar Ahmed

  3. Hafiz-e-Millat Allama Abdul Aziz Muhadith-e-Muradabadi

  4. Shaykh-ul-Ulama Allama Ghulam Jilani Aazmi

  5. Mufti-e-Azam Kanpur, Mufti Rifaqat Husain Kanpuri

  6. Hazrat Allama Hafiz Qari Muhammad Muslihud’deen Siddiqui (Uncle and father in- law of Mujahid-e-Ahle Sunnat Allama Sayed Shah Turab-ul-Haq Qaadiri Razvi Noori)

  7. Allama Ghulam Yazdani Ghoswi

    Huzoor Sadrush Shariah ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ married four wives and was blessed with many pious children from all his wives. Below are the names of his respected wives and children:

    1st wife: Mohtarama Karima Khatun Sahiba:

    • Hakim Shamsul Huda Marhum

    • Zubeda Khatun marhuma

    • Maulana Mohammed Yahya Marhum

    • Allama Abdul Mustafa Azhari Marhum

    • Allama Ata-ul-Mustafa Marhum 2nd wife: Mohtaramah Safiy an Nisa Sahiba

    • Ra’isa Khatun Marhuma

      3rd wife: Mohtarama Rabi’a Khatun Sahiba

    • Muhammad Ahmed Marhum

    • Qari Raza-ul-Mustafa Sahib

      4th wife: Mohtarama Hajra Bibi Sahiba

    • Mohtarama Sa’ida Khatun Marhuma

    • Mohtarama Aisha Khatun

    • Muhadith-e-Kabeer, Hazrat Allama Maulana Zia-ul-Mustafa Qaadiri Amjadi

    • Muhammad Marhum

    • Maulana Sana-ul-Mustafa Sahib

    • Allama Baha-ul-Mustafa Sahib

    • Maulana Fida-ul-Mustafa Sahib

Huzoor Sadrush Shariah travelled from this mundane world into the hereafter on Monday, the 2nd of Zil Qadah 1327 Hijri, coinciding 6th September 1948 at 11pm whilst intending to journey for his second Hajj and Ziyaarat. Allah ta’aala, grant him a special closeness in the shade of His Mercy. Aameen

Important Shari’ Terminology

There are a few important technical terms of Shariah that need to be explained here, as they will be helpful throughout this book.

Fard-e-E'tiqaadi (Explicit Obligatory Act): refers to a command of Shariah which is proven by the distinct evidence of Shariah (in other words by such proof that is beyond any doubt). According to Hanafi scholars, one who denies this is an absolute infidel. There is Ijma (consensus of the learned Muslim scholars) that the one who denies any Fard-e- E'tiqaadi, the ruling regarding which is commonly known and obvious as to be related directly to an issue of Obligation in Religion then such a person is not only himself an infidel but one who doubts the infidelity about such a denier, is himself regarded as an infidel. Nonetheless, one who deliberately leaves out even once, any Fard-e-E'tiqaadi such as Namaaz, Ruku, Sujood without a valid reason permitted by Shariah is a fasiq (a transgressor), guilty of having committed a major sin and is deserving of the torment of hellfire.

Fard-e-Amali (Implicit Obligatory Act): This is a command of which is not as explicit (as Fard-e-E’tiqadi) but in view of the consensus of the Mujtahideen, (if) the command is based on the evidence of Shariah one is regarded as guilty of transgression (if left out) and one will not be relieved of his responsibility unless he fulfills it and such as the case when it is Fard in any Ibaadat (worship), then that (Ibaadat) will be regarded as invalid and nullified if that particular (action) is not fulfilled. To reject (deny) it without valid reason is an act of transgression and misguidance. However, if there is one who based on the views of Shariah, is worthy of arguing a certain view (This refers to a Mujtahid) then he has the right to differ with it on the basis of any evidence of the Shariah. (An example) of this is the differences between the righteously guided A’ima-e-Mujtahideen (viz. Imam Abu Hanifa – Imam Shafi’i, Imam Ahmed bin Hambal – Imam Maalik), where one Imam considers something to be Fard whilst the other does not. For example, according to the Hanafi School of thought the Masah (to pass wet hands over the head in Wudu) of one-fourth of the head in

wudu (ablution) is Fard and according to the Shafa’i school of thought, even the masah of one strand of hair is sufficient (to fulfil the Fard); whilst according to the Maaliki school of thought the Masah of the entire head (is Fard). Another Example is that according to the Hanafi School of thought, to recite the Bismillah and to make the intention for wudu is Sunnat, whereas these are regarded as Fard according to the Hambali and Shafi’i Schools of thought; i.e. saying Bismillah is Fard for Hambalis and Niyyat is Fard for Shafi’is; and with the exception of these, there are numerous other examples. In Fard-e-Amali, every person should adhere to the (principles of) the Imam of whom he is a Muqallid (adherent). It is unlawful (impermissible) to follow any other Imam besides your own Imam without any legitimate reason of Shariah.

Waajib-e-E’tiqaadi (Explicit Compulsory Act): is that which is proven as essential through Daleel-e-Zan’ni (a tradition reliably transmitted by one or a few people). Fard-e-Amali and Waajib-e-Amali are the two categories of this and it is enclosed within these two.

Waajib-e-Amali (Implicit Compulsory Act): is that Waajib-e- E’tiqaadi that even though one does not fulfill it, there is the probability that one will be absolved of his responsibility. However, its necessity (to be fulfilled) is given precedence. If the Waajib-e-'Amali is omitted in any Ibaadat (worship) where it is regarded as necessary to be fulfilled (in other words it is an essential part of that Ibaadat) then without it being done, such Ibaadat will be regarded as defective but valid. A Mujtahid has the right to disagree with (differ regarding) the rules of a Waajib, based on evidence in the light of the Shariah. To intentionally omit even a single Waajib is a minor sin (Gunah-e-Sagheera) and to do so more than once (i.e. a few times) is a major sin (Gunah-e-Kabeera).

Sunnat-e-Mu’akkadah (Regular Emphasised Practice of The Holy Prophet ): It is a practice which was always (regularly) practiced by the Holy Prophet  but he occasionally omitted it

to show it as permitted (i.e. so that it is not regarded as Fard). It (can also be understood) in the sense of it being an importantly emphasised practice, to which he  did not completely close off the part of it being omitted. To

leave it out is Isa’at (bad but less than abhorrent) and to practice it is Thawaab (deserving of reward). To miss it on the odd occasion is deserving of a warning of serious consequences and to leave it out habitually is deserving of punishment.

Sunnat-e-Ghair-Mu’akkadah (Not A Regular Practice But Deserving Of Reward): It is that desired action in the light of Shariah, that leaving it out is regarded as undesirable but it is not regarded as undesirable to the extent where (one who omits it) has been warned of receiving punishment for doing so, even if the Holy Prophet  regularly practiced it or not. To practice it is to attain reward and to omit it even habitually does not incur warning of serious consequences.

Mustahab (Desirable Action): This refers to that practice, which in the view of the Shariah is desirable and omitting it is not regarded to be undesirable, even though it was practiced by the Holy Prophet  himself and it was something that was encouraged; or even if the Learned Scholars of Islam (Ulama) were pleased with it (being practiced) even though it may not have been mentioned in the Ahadith. It is worthy of reward if it is done and if it is not done then there is absolutely no accountability.

Mubah (Lawful): The law regarding this is alike, either if it is done or not (In other words either doing it or not doing it, are both lawful).

Haraam-e-Qat’ai (Explicitly prohibited): This is comparable to Fard. To intentionally carry out such an action is a major sin and transgression (of the law) and to abstain from (such an action) is Fard (an obligation) and deserving of reward.

Makrooh-e-Tahreemi (Disapproved to the Point of Being Forbidden): This is comparable to Waajib. By committing such an action, the Ibaadat becomes defective and one who commits such an action is regarded as sinful, even though the sin of such an action is less than that of committing a Haraam (Forbidden / Prohibited) offence; the

committing of such an offence on a few occasions’ amounts to it being regarded a major sin (Kabeera).

Isa’at (Bad Action): The committing of such an action is bad and one who commits it occasionally deserves chastisement, whereas making it a habitual action causes one to be culpable of punishment. This (Isa’at) is comparable to Sunnat-e-Mu’akkadah.

Makrooh-e-Tanzeehi (Undesirable Action): That action which is regarded as undesirable in the Shariat but it is not to the extent where there is warning of any punishment for committing it. This is comparable to Sunnat-e-Ghair Mu’akkadah.

Khilaaf-e-Ula (Contrary to what is best): This means to do something which was best not done. However, if it is done, then there is no harm or any chastisement for it. This is comparable to Mustahab.

One will find numerous discussions regarding these technical terms of Shariat, but this (which has been presented) is the essence of the research done.

ﺮﻳوﺎﻨﺑرﺐﺤﻳﺎﻤﻛ ﻴﻠﻋﺎ رﺎﺒﻣ ﻴﻓ≈

رﺎﺒﻣ ً ﺜﻛﺪً ﻤﺣﺪﻤﺤﻟﺍﷲو

Dedication

In The Love & Honour of A True Aashiq-e-Rasool 

Whose every breath was taken in the sincere Love Of Allah’s Habeeb , Our Leader and the True And Devoted Companion

of our Master 

Hazrat Bilal-e-Habshi ؓ

I would like to dedicate this translation to:

Murshid-e-Barhaq, Huzoor Taajush Shariah, Rahbar-e-Tariqat Hazrat Allama Mufti Mohammed Akhtar Raza Khan Qaadiri Azhari Qibla

Huzoor Muhadith-e-Kabeer, Ja Nasheen-e- Sadrush Shariah Hazrat Allama Zia-ul- Mustafa Qaadiri Amjadi Qibla

ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟﺍﻦﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍﷲﺍﻢﺴ

ﻢﻳ ﺍ ﻟﻮﺳر ﻋ ﺼ وﮦﺪﻤﺤﻧ

Lawful and Unlawful

This chapter discusses the issues in Shariah, which are either regarded as ‘Mamnu’ (unlawful / disallowed) or ‘Mubah’ (Lawful / allowed).

In the terminology of Shariah, Mubah refers to that, which is alike in the letter of the law, whether performed or not. In other words doing it or not doing it are both lawful and neither is there any (guarantee) of reward or any (warning) of chastisement for either performing it or omitting it.

There is also no abhorrence in doing it (i.e. it is not regarded as Makruh). The discussion regarding both categories of ‘Makruh’ (abhorrent/disapproved actions) has been discussed in Chapter two of Bahaar-e-Shariat.

The issues in this volume have been divided into chapters. The first chapter will deal with the rules regarding eating and drinking, as ‘mans’ physical life is related to eating and drinking (i.e. sustenance).

Chapter 1

The Etiquettes Of Eating

It has been mentioned in the Holy Qur’an

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“O Offspring of Adam! Adorn yourself when going into the Musjid; and eat and drink; and do not be lavish (commit transgressions) and undoubtedly He loves not those who are lavish. O Beloved! You Say: Who has forbidden that adornment which Allah has provided for His servants; (and) the purely wholesome sustenance! You say: They are for the believers, in this world; and on the Day of Reckoning, especially for them only. In this manner do We explain in detail the verses, for the people of knowledge. You say: My Rub has forbidden (made Haraam) immodest actions, (be it) that which is open or that which is concealed; and sins and unlawful transgressions; and associating partners to Allah, for which He has not granted any right; and to attribute that to Allah, regarding which you have no knowledge of.”

[Surah 7 Verses 31-33]

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There is no problem to the blind, nor any consequence to the cripple, nor prohibition to the ill and nor to any from amongst you, that you may eat in the homes of your offsprings, or the homes of your fathers, or the homes of your mothers, or at the homes of your brothers, or at the homes of your sisters or at the homes of paternal uncles (father’s brothers), or at the homes of your paternal aunts (father’s sisters) or at the homes of your maternal

uncles (mother’s brothers) or at the homes of your maternal aunts (mother’s sisters), or in those places of which the keys are in your custody, or in the house of your friend. There is no sin on you, whether you eat together or individually. [Surah 24 Verse 61]

We shall initially present in this section a few Ahadith relating to the virtues and merits of eating.

Hadith 1: It is reported in Sahih Muslim Shareef from Huzaifa ؓ that Rasoolullah  said that, ‘food on which ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ (Bismillah) is not recited is permissible for shaitaan to eat. This means that shaitaan partakes in your meal if you do not recite ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ before eating.’

Hadith 2: It is reported in Sahih Muslim from Hazrat Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When a person enters a house and proclaims

ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ on entering and before eating, then shaitaan says to his

accomplices, ‘Neither will you get any shelter nor anything to eat in this house’. If one does not say ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ when entering the house, he says, ‘Now you have found a place of shelter and if he does not say ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ before eating, then he says to his brood, ‘Now you have found a place of shelter and food to eat.’’

Hadith 3: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim from Umar ibn Abi Salma ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر. He says, ‘As a child1 I was in the care of Rasoolullah  and whilst eating, I would eat from all over the plate. Rasoolullah  said, ‘Recite ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ eat with your right hand, and eat from the portion of the plate which is before you.’’

image

1. Umar ibn Abi Salma ؓ was the step-son of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah  and the son of Umm- ul-Mo’mineen Umm-e-Salma ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر

Hadith 4: Abu Dawud, Tirmizi and Haakim narrate from Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Huzoor  said, ‘When a person commences eating, he should take the Name of Allah, in other words he should

recite

ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ

and if he has forgotten to recite the

ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ

at the

beginning, then he should say:

ﮦ و

ﻟ و

ﷲﺍ ﻢ ْ

It is mentioned as follows in the narrations of Imam Ahmed, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hib’baan and Baihaqi:

ﺁ و

ﻟو

ْ ﷲﺍ ﻢ ْ

Hadith 5: Imam Ahmed, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and Haakim narrate from Wahshi bin Harb ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Eat together (in a group) and say ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ (before eating). There shall be abundance in this for you.’

It is further mentioned in the narration of Ibn Majah that the people said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! We eat but our stomachs are not filled (i.e. we are still hungry)’. He  said, ‘Possibly you eat individually’. They acknowledged this and he  said, ‘Eat together and say ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ (and) there shall be barkat (blessings in abundance).’

Hadith 6: It is in Sharhus Sunnah from Abu Ayub ؓ. He says, ‘We were in the Holy Presence of Rasoolullah  and the food was presented to us. In the beginning, we noticed such barkat, like we had never seen in any meal before, but towards the end we noticed a scarcity of it (i.e. the Barkat became less). We said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah

! Why did this happen?’ He  said, ‘All of us proclaimed ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ

before eating. Then, one person sat down to eat without proclaiming

ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ so shaitaan shared in the meal with him.’’

Hadith 7: Abu Dawud narrated on the authority of Umay’ya bin Makhshi ؓ. He says, ‘once a person was eating his meal without

saying ﷲﺍ

ﻢﺴ

He had completed eating his meal; except for one

morsel. He then raised the morsel saying, ﮦ �' , ' و ﻟ' و ﺍ' ,ﷲﺍ ﻢ, ﺴْ , Rasoolullah

 smiled and said, ‘shaitaan was eating with him. When he took Allah’s Name, then he (shaitaan) spewed out whatever was in his

stomach.’ This could also mean that by proclaiming ﷲﺍ

blessing of the meal that was lost is regained.’

ﻢﺴ

the

Hadith 8: It is in Sahih Muslim from Hazrat Huzaifa ؓ. He says that ‘whenever we partook in a meal with Huzoor  we would never touch the food, until Huzoor  would commence eating. On a particular occasion whilst we were present with Huzoor  a girl came in running, as if she was being pushed forward by someone. She intended to put her hand into the food, but Huzoor  held her hand. Then a Bedouin Arab came in running, as if someone had thrust him forward. Huzoor  held his hand as well and said ‘When the Name of Allah is not proclaimed on any food, it becomes Halaal for shaitaan to eat; shaitaan entered with the girl, so that he may join her in the meal, thus I caught her hand. Then he entered with the Bedouin, so that he may partake in the meal with him, so I caught his hand. I swear an oath (By Him) in whose Divine Power is My Life! His hand is in my hand with their hands.’ Thereafter,

Huzoor  proclaimed the ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ and commenced eating.’

Imam Ahmed, Abu Dawud and Nasa’i have presented similar narrations.

Hadith 9: Ibn Asakir has reported on the authority of Uqba bin Aamir ؓ that Huzoor  said, ‘That food on which the Name of Allah was not mentioned causes illness and there is no barkat blessing in it, and the amends (Kafarah) for it is that if the eating cloth has not

yet been gathered, you should say ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ and eat something (even if

it is a little), and if the eating cloth has already been gathered, say ﻢﺴ ﷲﺍ and clean your fingers.’

Hadith 10: Dailmi reported from Hazrat Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah

 said, ‘when eating or drinking, say,

ضرْ ﻻْ ﺍ ْ ﺊﻴﺷ

ﻤﺳﺍﻊﻣ

ﻻ ى

ﺬﻟ ﷲﺎ ﺑ و

ﷲﺍ ﻢ ْ

م ْ

ﻳ ء ﺎﻤ ﻟﺍ ْ ﻻ و

thus that meal or drink will not cause you any illness, even if it has been poisoned.’

Hadith 11: It is in Sahih Muslim from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When eating food, eat with the right hand and when drinking water, drink with the right hand.’

Hadith 12: It is in Sahih Muslim from Ibn Umar that Rasoolullah

 said, ‘No one should eat any food or drink any water with the left hand, for to eat and drink with the left hand is the manner of shaitaan.’

Hadith 13: Ibn Majah reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Nabi  said, ‘Eat and drink with the right hand; and take and give with the right hand, for shaitaan eats and drinks with the left hand and takes and gives with the left hand.’

Hadith 14: Ibn ul Najaar reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Huzoor  said, ‘It is the manner (way) of the Ambia مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ﻢ ﻴﻠﻋ to eat with three fingers.’

Hakeem reported from Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Huzoor-e-Akram  said, ‘Eat with three fingers, for it is Sunnat and do not eat with all five fingers, for it is the way of the village dwellers.’

Hadith 15: It is in Sahih Muslim from Ka’ab ibn Maalik ؓ that Rasoolullah  used to eat with three fingers and he would clean his hands before wiping them.

Hadith 16: It is in Sahih Muslim from Jaabir ؓ that Nabi  commanded us to clean our fingers and plates, and he  said, ‘You know not which portion of the food holds the blessing’.

Hadith 17: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abdullah ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Nabi  said ‘Do not wipe your hands after eating; until such time that you have cleaned them or you allow someone else to clean your fingers’. In other words, you may allow such a person to do this who does not think of it as distasteful and offensive, such as your students or your mureedeen (disciples) as they regard the left over food portions of their teachers (Ustaaz) or Sheikh (Murshid) to be Tabaruk (sacred) and they gladly take this to be a beneficial opportunity.

Hadith 18: Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi and Ibn Majah report from Nubaisha ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘whosoever cleans his plate (i.e. wipes it clean by using fingers etc.) after eating; that plate will make Istighfar for him (ask for the forgiveness on his behalf).’ It is also mentioned in the narration of Razeen that the plate says ‘Allah

grant you salvation from Jahanum (Hell fire), like you have granted me deliverance from shaitaan.’

Hadith 19: Tabrani has reported from Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Huzoor  forbade blowing in food and water.

Hadith 20: It is in Sahih Muslim from Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah

 said, ‘shaitaan infringes in everything you do and he becomes present when you are eating, thus if any morsel falls and something comes onto it, clean and eat that morsel. Do not leave it for shaitaan. When you have completed eating clean your fingers, for it is not known which portion of the meal contains the blessing.’

Hadith 21: Ibn Majah reported on the authority of Hassan Basri ؓ that Mu’qil bin Yasaar ؓ was partaking in a meal. A morsel fell from his hand (whilst eating), so he picked it up, cleaned it and ate it. On seeing this, (some) villagers gestured that with their eyes. Someone said to him, that Allah have mercy on the Ameer1. The villagers gesture at you with their eyes for having eaten the fallen morsel despite sufficient food being before you. Hazrat Mu’qil ؓ said, ‘On account of these non-Arabs, I can not omit that, which I heard from Rasoolullah . We were commanded that if any morsel fell, we should pick it up, clean it and eat it, and not leave it for shaitaan.’

Hadith 22: Ibn Majah reported from Umm-ul-Mo’mineen A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Nabi  entered the house and found a piece of bread on the ground. He picked it up, wiped it and then ate it, saying, ‘O A’isha! Respect a good thing, for when this thing was taken away from any nation, it did not return to them.’

image

1. Mu’qil bin Yasaar was the Ameer and Leader of that locality.

When sustenance is taken away from any ungrateful nation, it never returns to them.

Hadith 23: Tabrani reported from Abdullah ibn Umm-e-Hiraam ؓ that Huzoor  said, ‘Respect bread for it is from the blessings of the sky and earth. That person who eats a piece of bread that has fallen from the eating cloth shall be forgiven.’

Hadith 24: Daarimi reported from Asma ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that when Thareed1 would be brought to her, she would ask for it to be kept away so that the intensity of its steam may fade away; and she says, ‘I heard from Rasoolullah  that there is more barkat in doing this.’

Hadith 25: Haakim reports from Jaabir ؓ and Abu Dawud report from Asma ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that he  said, ‘Allow food to cool, for there is no blessing in hot food.’

Hadith 26: It is in Sahih Bukhari Shareef on the authority of Abu Umaama ؓ that Rasoolullah  used to read the following (dua) once the eating cloth would to be gathered:

ٍ ْﻜﻣ

ْ

ْ ﻓ ﺎً رﺎﺒ

ﺎﺒً ﻃ ﺍ ً ْ ﺜﻛ

ﺪً ﻤْ

ْ ﺤﻟْ

ﺎﻨ ﺑر

ْ

ً ﻐْ ْ

ﻻ و

عٍ د ْ

ﻻ و

Hadith 27: In Sahih Muslim it is reported from Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Allah is pleased with one who praises Allah when he eats a morsel, and one who praises Allah when he drinks water.’

1. Thareed is an Arabian dish made from pieces of bread.

Hadith 28: Tirmizi, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah reported from Abu Sa’eed Khudri ؓ that after eating, Rasoolullah  used to read:

ْ ﻤ ﻠْ ﺍ ﻦﻣ

ﺎﻨ ﻠ ﻌ

و ﻧﺎﻘ ﺳ

و ﺎﻨ ْﻃ ى

ﺬﻟ ﷲ ﺪ

ْ ﺤﻟْ

Hadith 29: It is in Tirmizi from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah

 said, ‘A person who is grateful after eating is like the person who is patient whilst fasting’.

Hadith 30: Abu Dawud reported from Abu Ayub ؓ that whenever Rasoolullah  ate or drank something, he recited:

ﺎﺟً

ﻟ ﻞﻌ ﺟ و

ﻏ ﻮ ﺳ

و lٰ ﺳ

و ﻢ ﻌْﻃ ى

ﺬﻟ ﷲ ﺪ

ْ ﺤﻟْ

Hadith 31: Zia reported from Anas ؓ that he  said, ‘when food is kept before a person, he is granted forgiveness (Maghfirah), before it is lifted (off the eating cloth), on condition that ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ should be mentioned when the food is laid out and ‘Alhumdulillah’ is said when it is about to be picked up.’

Hadith 32: Nasa’i etc. have reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah ؓ that after eating, the following dua should be read:

ﻦﺴ

ءٍ ﺑ ﻞ و

ﻧﺎﻘ ﺳ

و ﺎﻨ ْﻃ و

ﻧﺍﺪ

ﺎﻨ ْ ﻠ ﻋ

ﻦﻣ و

ْ

ﻻ و

ﻌ ﻄْ ﻳ ى

ﺬﻟ ﷲ ﺪ

ْ ﺤﻟْ

ىﺬﻟ ﷲ ﺪ

ْ

ﻟْ ﺍ

ْ

ً ﻐْ ْ

ﻻو

ر ْْﻜﻣ

ﻻ و

ﺎ ﻣ

ﻻ و

ْ ر

عٍ د ْ

ْ ﻏ ﷲ ﺪ

ْ

ﻟْ ﺍ ﺎ ْ

و ل ﻼﻀ ﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ

ﻧﺍﺪ

و ىﺮﻌ ﻟْ ﺍ ﻦﻣ

ﻧﺎﺴ ﻛ و

ﺏﺍ ﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ

ﻧﺎﻘ ﺳ

و مﺎﻌ ﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ

ﺎﻨ ْﻃ

ْ ﻟ ﺎﻌ ْ ﺍ ﺏر

ﷲ ﺪ

ْ ﺤﻟْ ﻼ

ْ

ﻔْ

ﻘﻠْ ﺧ

ﻦﻣ ٍ ْ ﺜﻛ

ٰ

ﺎﻨ ﻠ ﻀ

و ﻰﻤْ ﻟْ ﺍ ﻦﻣ

Hadith 33: Imam Ahmed, Abu Dawud, Tirmizi and Ibn Majah report from Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Nabi  said, ‘When having a

meal one should say ْ

ﺍ_ً ْ ﺧ

ﺎﻨ' ﻟ' ﺪ, ْ

و , ﻴْ , ﻓ ﺎﻨ'

≈ْ ,رﺎ'ﺑ ﻢ ,a ﻠ: ﻟﺍ' When he drinks milk,

he should say ' , ﺎ'ﻧدْ ,ز و' , ﻴ' , ﻓ ﺎﻨ' ﻟ' ≈ْ ,رﺎ'ﺑ ﻢ ,a ﻟﺍ' for there is nothing comparableto milk, which suffices in place of water and food.’

Hadith 34: It is in Ibn Majah from Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Nabi  forbade getting up from a meal, until such time that the food has been lifted (from the eating cloth).

Hadith 35: Ibn Majah reported from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said ‘When the eating spread is being gathered, none should get up until it has been lifted up, and do not pull your hands away from the food, even though you have completed eating, until such time that all those eating, complete their meal. However, if one wishes to hold his hand back, then he should present an apology for doing so, for if he does not do so, then some other person who is eating will also hold back his hand due to shyness, and possibly he still has a need to eat more’. On the basis of this Hadith, the Ulama have mentioned that if a person is a small eater, he should eat slowly and he should eat a little at a time, and if he is still not able to continue eating at the pace of the congregation, then he should apologise (take leave), so that others are not shy (to continue eating).

Hadith 36: Tirmizi and Abu Dawud have reported from Salman Farsi ؓ. He says, ‘I read in the Taurat that to wash is a means of attaining blessings. I mentioned this to Huzoor  and he  said, ‘The blessings of food lies in washing (the hands) making wudu before and after eating’.’

image

1. In this Hadith, the actual the washing of the hands has been referred to as wudu.

Hadith 37: In Tabrani from Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر is is narrated that Huzoor  said, ‘Wudu (i.e. washing hands) before and after eating alleviates dependency and this is from the Sunnat of the Mursaleen).’

Hadith 38: Ibn Majah narrates from Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Whosoever wishes for Allah Ta’aala to increase the goodness in his home, he should wash once the food has been spread out and he should wash once it has been gathered. In other words, he should wash his hands and mouth.’

Hadith 39: Ibn Majah reports from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Huzoor  said, ‘Eat together in a group and do not eat individually for there is blessing in eating in a group.’

Hadith 40: Tirmizi reported on the authority of Ikrash bin Zuwaib ؓ who says that ‘a bowl with lots of Thareed and pieces of meat was brought to us. My hand began to wander all over the dish but Rasoolullah  continued to eat from that which was in front of him. Huzoor  then held my right hand with his left hand and said, ‘Ikrash! Eat from one place as it is just one type of food.’ After this, a variety of dates was brought in a tray. I ate from what was in front of me and Rasoolullah  ate from different places on the tray. He  then said, ‘Ikrash! Eat from where ever you desire as this is not something that is of the same type’. Thereafter, water was brought, Huzoor  washed his blessed hands and he wiped (made masah) using the wetness of his hands, over his mouth, wrists and head, and said, ‘Ikrash! This is the wudu after eating that which has been in contact with fire (i.e. cooked food).’’

Hadith 41: Tirmizi, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah have reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Nabi  said, ‘One who experiences any

discomfort after retiring to bed with an odour or greasy hands, ought to only blame himself for not having washed them.’ A similar narration is also reported from Hazrat Faatima Zahra ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر .

Hadith 42: Haakim has reported on the authority of Abu A’bas bin Jabar ؓ that he  said, ‘remove your shoes whilst eating as it is a Sunnat-e-Jameela (good practice)’, and it is reported from Hazrat Anas ؓ that when the spread of food has been laid out, then remove your shoes, for there is comfort to your feet in this.

Hadith 43: Abu Dawud reported on authority of Hazrat Sayyid A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Huzoor  said, ‘do not cut meat with a knife (whilst eating), for this is the way of non-Arabs (westerners). Eat it by biting through it with your teeth, for this is wholesome and good for digestion.’

However, if one uses a knife to cut through meat whilst eating due to a valid reason, such as if it is not thoroughly cooked, or if it is difficult to bite through, or if it is difficult to break it by hand, such as in the case of partaking in a whole roasted thigh piece etc. which would take a long time to bite through, then there is no harm in using a knife to cut through it. There are reports of Huzoor  cutting through meat with a knife whilst eating in such situations.1

However, to use these incidents as evidence to eat with the help of a fork and knife and, to prove its validity through this is unfounded.

image

1. This applies in a case where the meat has been cooked thoroughly, because if it has been cooked thoroughly, it can be eaten by breaking it with the hand or it can be broken by biting it with the teeth. Today, many Muslims eat with the help of a fork and knife, thereby following the way of the westerners. This is a distasteful practice whilst eating. To eat on this, was the manner of the arrogant people, just as today, it has become a (common) habit amongst people to eat at tables. Also to eat in very small bowls is the manner of the wealthy, whereby they lay out numerous dishes in small bowls.

Hadith 44: It is in Sahih Bukhari from Abu Juhaifa ؓ that Nabi-e- Kareem  said, ‘I do not recline (lean) whilst eating.’

Hadith 45: It is in Sahih Bukhari from Anas ؓ that Nabi-e-Kareem

 did not eat on a Kwan (a table like object) and neither did he eat in very small bowls and nor were thin chapaatis (rotis) prepared for Huzoor . Another narration has mentioned that Rasoolullah  did not even see (look at) thin chapaatis. Qataadah ؓ was asked about what they would eat on, and he mentioned that they would eat on an eating cloth (spread). A Kwan refers to that which is like a table. This was usually the manner used for eating at the homes of the wealthy, so that there was no need to bend over.

Hadith 46: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah

ؓ that Nabi  never found fault in any food (he never spoke badly about a meal). If he felt like it, he partook in it; otherwise, he would not partake in it.

Hadith 47: In Sahih Muslim it is reported from Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Food for one person suffices for two people and the (amount) of food for two people suffices for four people and the food for four people suffices for eight people.’

Hadith 48: It is in Sahih Bukhari from Miqdaam bin Ma’di Kurb ؓ that Rasoolullah  said ‘Each of you should measure your meals, for there is barkat in this for you’.

Hadith 49: Ibn Majah, Tirmizi and Daarimi have reported from Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Thareed was presented in a bowl to Rasoolullah . He  said, ‘Eat from the sides. Do not eat from the centre as blessings descend in the centre’. Thareed is an (Arabian)

dish that is made by pieces of roti being broken and rubbed into gravy. Rasoolullah  used to enjoy this meal.

Hadith 50: Tabrani reported from Abdur Rahman bin Mauqí ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘No vessel that has been filled is worse than the stomach. If you wish to put anything into your stomach, then allocate one third for food, one third for water and one third for air and breathing’.

Hadith 51: Tirmizi and Ibn Majah have reported from Miqdaam bin Ma’di Kurb ؓ. He says, ‘I heard Nabi  saying, ‘Man has not filled any vessel that is worse than the stomach. A few morsels are sufficient for Ibn Adam (the offspring of Adam) to keep his back in order (i.e. straight). If there is a need for him to eat more, then he should allocate one third for food, one third for water and one third for breathing’.’

Hadith 52: Tirmizi reported from Ibn-e-Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Nabi

 heard the sound of a person burping. Rasoolullah  said, ‘Limit the sound of your burping, for he who over fills his stomach in the world will be the hungriest on the Day of Qiyaamat’.

Hadith 53: It is in Sahih Muslim from Anas ؓ. He says, ‘I saw Nabi-e-Kareem  eating some dates. Rasoolullah  was seated on his rear in such a manner that both his knees were upright’.

Hadith 54: It is reported in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  forbade (us from) eating two Dates together, except when those with whom you are eating permit you to do so.

Hadith 55: It is in Sahih Muslim from A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Nabi-e- Kareem  said, ‘The family of a person, who has dates in his home, is never without a meal’. It has been mentioned in another narration that, the family of a person who has no dates in his home, is without a meal.

This refers to the era and the place wherein dates are in abundance. In other words, when they had dates in their homes, they were very comfortable and their families and children had sufficient to eat. When they were hungry, they would partake in the dates and this would alleviate their hunger.

Hadith 56: It is in Muslim from Abu Ayub Ansari ؓ that when food would be presented before Nabi  he would send the remainder to me, after partaking in it. Once, he sent a platter of food to me from which he had not eaten anything, because it contained garlic. I thus enquired if it (garlic) was haraam and he said, ‘No, I do not prefer it because of its odour.’ (So) I said, ‘I too do not desire that which Huzoor  does not prefer.’

Hadith 57: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Hazrat Jaabir ؓ that either Nabi  said, he who eats garlic or onions should remain at a distance from us’, or he said that, ‘he should keep away from our Musjid, or that he should remain in his home.’ (Once), a pot containing green vegetables was presented before Rasool . Huzoor

 said, ‘Give it to such and such (of my) companions.’ He then said to them, ‘You may partake in it, for I converse with them and you do not converse with them (i.e. with the Angels).’

Hadith 58: Tirmizi and Abu Dawud have reported from Hazrat Maula Ali ؓ that Rasoolullah  cautioned us against eating garlic, unless it was cooked.

Hadith 59: Tirmizi reported from Umm-e-Haani ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر. She says, ‘Huzoor  came to my home and asked if there was anything (to eat). I said that there was nothing except dry bread (roti) and vinegar.’ He  said, ‘Bring it forth! The people in a home which has vinegar are never dependant on any condiment.’

Hadith 60: It is in Sahih Muslim from Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah

 requested some condiment from the people of the house. They said that with the exception of vinegar they had nothing else. Huzoor  requested it and commenced eating with it and he repeatedly said, ‘Vinegar is a good condiment’.

Hadith 61: Ibn Majah reported on the authority of Asma bint Yazeed ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that some food was presented before Rasoolullah

. Huzoor-e-Akram  presented it to us and we said that we had no need to eat. He  said, ‘do not combine hunger and lies!’ In other words, when you are hungry and someone offers you food, do not say that you are not hungry, but partake in the meal, for not to eat and then to lie is harmful in this world and in the hereafter. Some people who are shy generally do this and many villagers that unless they are not asked to eat repeatedly; they refuse to partake in the meal by saying that they are not hungry. It is necessary to abstain from telling lies.

Hadith 62: It is in Muslim from Abu Hurairah ؓ. He says, ‘Once, Rasoolullah  went out and he also met with Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر. Rasoolullah  asked, ‘what is it that has drawn you out of your homes?’ They said, ‘Hunger’. He  said, ‘By Him in Whose Divine Control is my life! That, which has drawn you out of you homes, has also brought me out of my home.’ Nabi-e- Akram  commanded them to stand up. They stood up with Rasoolullah  and went to the home of an Ansari. They found that

he was not at his home. The wife of that Ansari saw them, and immediately welcomed them. Rasoolullah  asked, ‘where is so and so person?’ She replied that he had gone to fetch some sweet water. Just then, the Ansari returned. On seeing The Holy Prophet  and Hazrat Abu Bakr and Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر he said, ‘today, there is none more fortunate than I, for such exalted visitors have come to my home.’ He then presented (them) with a bunch of dates, of which some were ripe whilst others were dry and some were dripping. He requested the blessed personalities to partake in it. He then brought out a knife. Nabi  asked him not to slaughter one that gave milk. The Ansari slaughtered the goat. The blessed personalities partook in the meat and the dates and drank water. After they had completed eating, he  said to Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر ‘By Him in Whose Divine Control is my life! On the day of Qiyaamat you will be questioned regarding this blessing. Hunger brought you out of your homes, and you were blessed with this blessing even before you returned to your homes.’’

Hadith 63: Muslim and Abu Dawud reported from Umm-e-Salma ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Huzoor  said, ‘One who eats or drinks in silver or gold vessels is allowing the fire of hell to enter his stomach.’

Hadith 64: Abu Dawud etc. have narrated on the authority of Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When a fly falls into your food, then dip it in (and throw it away), for there is illness on one of its wings and Shifa (cure) on the other. It tries to save itself by using that wing which carries the illness and thus dips the wing which carries the illness first into the food, so dip the entire (fly) in.’

Hadith 65: Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and Daarimi report from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When a person has eaten something (and some particles remain in his teeth) which he

removes by means of cleaning the teeth (making khilaal of the teeth), he should spit out those (particles which come from the teeth) and if it is from the tongue, then he may swallow it. Whosoever did this has done a good thing and if he hasn’t, then there is no harm.’

Laws of Jurisprudence

In certain conditions, it is Fard (obligatory) to eat, and eating in such conditions will allow one to accumulate reward. Not eating (in such conditions) will cause one to be held in contempt (i.e. he will be regarded as being sinful). If a persons hunger is so intense, that he feels he will surely die if he does not eat, then in such a condition, it is Fard for him to eat the amount of food which is sufficient to save his life. If he does not eat in this condition and this causes his death, then he will be regarded as being sinful. It is necessary for a person to eat enough that will give him the energy to stand up and perform his Namaaz and to keep his fast. In other words, if he does not eat, he will become so weak that he will not have enough energy to stand up and perform his Namaaz or keep his fast. To eat in such a condition is deserving of reward. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: When in a situation of Iztiraar; in other words, when one is faced with a situation where there is a risk of one losing his life if he does not eat, then in such a situation, even if he does not get anything which is Halaal to eat, he may eat that which is haraam, or he may eat of the carrion, or even that which belongs to someone else, in order to save his life. Under such dire circumstances, there is no accountability for eating these things. Actually, one is held accountable for not eating in such a situation. He should eat it, even if he will be held liable to pay a penalty for eating something that does not belong to him. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: If there is danger of dying due to thirst, then to drink anything in order to save you from destruction is Fard. If no water is available and only alcohol is available, then one should drink only enough to eliminate the threat (of death). [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If some other person has in his possession something to eat and drink, then one may pay him for it and then eat or drink it. If he does not agree to give the said thing even on payment and there is a fear of ones life being in danger, then one may forcefully snatch it from him. If he is also facing the same threat (i.e. he too faces dying if he gives it away), then you should take only a portion and leave a portion for him. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If a person is in the condition of Iztiraar (in such a condition where there is danger that one may loose his life) and another person says to him, Cut off a piece of my hand and eat the flesh’, then in this case, he has no permission to consume this meat (no matter what the circumstance). To consume the flesh of humans, even in such a (dire) circumstance is not Mubah (Lawful). [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: Medicine and Treatment should not be adduced on the basis of the ruling, which is applicable to food and drink. In other words, in the condition of the risk of death, one is permitted to eat the carrion and to drink alcohol (only sufficient to save ones life), but alcohol as a medicine will not be regarded as permissible. Reason being that the flesh of the carrion and the alcohol will definitely alleviate the hunger which is threatening ones life, but it cannot be said with complete conviction that consuming alcohol as a medicine will definitely reverse the illness. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: One should try to eat less than ones hunger, and to eat so much that ones hunger is completely alleviated is Mubah (lawful),

i.e. neither is there any (special) reward in doing so, nor any sin, because there is always the possibility that one could have had a valid reason for this (eating enough to alleviate the hunger totally), such as to attain more stamina. To eat more than ones hunger (i.e. to over-eat) is haraam. To eat more than ones hunger (over eating), means to each so much that there is a risk of the stomach being damaged (upset). In other words, there is a risk that it will lead to having diarrhoea and will cause ones condition to become unpleasant (i.e. it can cause severe indigestion). [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: If one eats more than ones hunger (need), with this thought in mind that he would be able to keep the fast of the following day properly and so that he will not feel any fatigue whilst fasting, then there is no harm in doing so. This is only when he only eats so much more, where he knows that it will not cause any harm to his stomach (digestive system) and he knows that if he does not eat more, he will feel fatigue and it will take (a longer) time for him to accomplish other duties. Similarly, if he is partaking in a meal with a visitor and he knows that by him holding back his hand, the visitor will be shy to eat a full stomach, then even in such a situation, one is allowed to eat a bit more. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: To eat a full stomach so that one may be able to perform Nafil prayers in abundance and that he will not feel any fatigue in reading or teaching and he will be able to accomplish this duty properly, is (recommended). If one ate more than ones limit, but not so much that the stomach is upset, it is Makruh. A person who spends a great deal of time in Ibaadat (worshipping and prayer) has the discretion of either eating to the extent of it being Mubah (Lawful) or to the extent of it being Mandub (recommended), but he should make the

intention that, ‘I am eating so that I may attain the necessary stamina to perform Ibaadat’ as to eat with the said intention is also included in the category of Obedience (to Allah). One should not eat with the objective of attaining pleasure and delight, as this is not a good quality. In the Holy Qur’an it mentions that the objective of the kufaar is to eat for pleasure and enjoyment, and overeating (over indulging) has been referred to in the Hadith Shareef as the quality of the kufaar. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: It is impermissible to eat such a modest amount of food whilst striving in the way of Allah (i.e. in Riyaazat and Mujaahida), that it causes one such weakness which hinders him from fulfilling his obligatory Ibaadat, like in a situation where a person eats so little and becomes so feeble due to this, that he is not able to stand up to perform his Namaaz. However, if he does not feel such weakness, then there is no objection (to him eating such a modest amount). [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: If one over ate, so that he may throw up thereafter, and this situation is beneficial for him, then there is no objection to this, as this practice is beneficial to some people.1 [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: There is no objection to eating a variety of fruits (together), even though it is better not to do so. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If a young man fears that by eating a full stomach, he will be overwhelmed by lust, then he should eat less so that he is not overwhelmed by this lust2.

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  1. The above mentioned law should not be misunderstood by those who use the, eat and vomit method when dieting or for other undesirable reasons. To eat and vomit for such reasons is not beneficial in any way and causes harm to the digestive system. In reality, it is an eating disorder which is very harmful and commonly known as bulimia.

  2. Similarly, some people have an increase in lust (shahwat) after eating meat. Such people should thus cut down in meat in their diet.

However, he should not eat so little that it causes failure in him performing his Ibaadat. [Alamgiri]

Law: If only one type of food is present and this causes a person to become agitated because he is not able to fulfil his (dietary) requirements through this, and he thus prepares a variety of foods so that he may eat some of each food type and thus fulfil his (dietary) requirement; then there is no objection in preparing a variety of meals for this reason. If a person prepared a variety of foods so that he may invite others to partake in it and none of the food will go to waste, then this too is allowed. If this is not the aim, then it is regarded as Israaf (being wasteful). [Alamgiri]

Law: The etiquettes and recommendations of eating are as follows:

(1) To wash the hands before eating; (2) To wash the hands after eating; (3) Not to wipe the hands after washing them before eating;

(4) To wipe the hands on a piece of cloth or towel after washing them after eating, so that the traces of food are not left on the hand.

Law: It is Sunnat to wash both the hands up to the wrists, before and after eating. Some people wash only one hand or just the fingers. Some people just suffice by only washing the finger tips. This does not fulfil the recommendation of the Sunnat. [Alamgiri]

Law: It is Mustahab (Desirable) when washing the hands, not to take assistance from anyone, but rather to pour the water over your hands personally. In other words, the rule is the same as with regards to wudu. [Alamgiri]

Law: (5) Wash the hands thoroughly after eating so that there are no traces of food on the hand. There is no objection in using flour, husk or gram flour when washing the hands. Nowadays, there is the

practice of using soap to wash the hands. There is also no objection to this. It is not Sunnat to rinse the mouth before eating. If someone did not rinse the mouth, it will not be said that he has omitted a Sunnat. However, if a Junub1 does not rinse the mouth before eating, then this is regarded as Makruh. However, it is not regarded as Makruh for a female who is menstruating to eat without rinsing the mouth. (6) Before eating, the hands of the younger ones should be washed first and after eating, the hands of the elders should be washed first. (7) and thereafter the hands of the youngsters. This same rule applies regarding the Ulama and Mashaíkh (Learned Personalities and Mystics), that before eating, their hands should be washed last and after eating, their hands should be washed first. (8)

To commence eating by saying Bismillah ﷲﺍ

ﻢﺴ

(9) To complete

eating by saying ﷲﺪﻤﺤﻟﺍ; If one has forgotten to say ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ then on

remembering, one should say ,ﮦ�, , ﺁ و

, ,ﻟو

ْ , i ,ﷲﺍ ﻢ,ْ , (10) Pronounce the

ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ (Bismillah) aloud, so that those who have forgotten to say it may remember and then mention it, but say ﷲﺪﻤﺤﻟﺍ silently if you have finished eating. However, if all have completed eating, then you may say ﷲﺪﻤﺤﻟﺍ aloud as well, so that the others may hear it and be

grateful to Allah. (11) Nothing should be kept on top of the roti (bread). Some people keep the curry bowl or the bowl of chutney or the salt dispenser on it. One should abstain from doing this. However, if the salt is kept in a piece of paper, then it may be kept on the roti. (12) Do not wipe your hands or a knife on the roti. (13) To recline whilst eating or (14) to eat without covering the head is contrary to the etiquettes of eating. (15) To rest the left hand on the ground whilst eating is also Makruh. (16) To break off the edges

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1. Junub: A person in an impure state after sexualy intimacy etc. and thus in need of taking the Fard (Obligatory) Bath.

(crust) of the roti and only eat the bread from the centre is Israaf (being wasteful). The entire roti should be eaten. There is no objection in breaking off the edges (crust) if they are not properly cooked, and if eating it will be harmful to you. Similarly, if you are aware that the pieces that you break off will be eaten by others and will not go to waste, then there is also no objection in breaking it off. The same ruling applies to eating only that portion of the roti which is raised and leaving the rest. (17) One should not wait for the curry once the roti has been served, but one should immediately start eating. This is one of the reasons why the roti is usually the last thing to be served, so that there is no need to wait; (18) eat with the right hand; (19) it is wasteful to discard a morsel, which has fallen from ones hand onto the spread. One should first pick up and eat the fallen morsel. (20) Do not eat from the centre of a plate or bowl but eat from the sides; (21) and eat from the side, which is closer to you.

(22) If there is only one type of food, then eat from one place and do not put your hands everywhere. However if there is a variety of foods kept in a tray, then one may eat from different places, as it is not regarded as being of one type. (23) When eating, place the left leg on the ground and keep the right leg (knee) upright, or sit on your rear keeping both knees upright. (24) Do not eat very hot (steaming) food; and (25) blow neither on food; (26) nor smell the food; (27) continue talking whilst eating. Do not remain totally silent as this is the way of the Majoosis’ (fire-worshippers). However, do not speak vile words, but have good discussions. (28) Clean your fingers (lick them) after eating. Do not leave any traces of food on them; (29) wipe your plate clean with your fingers and then clean (lick) the fingers. It has been mentioned in the Hadith that the plate of a person who cleans it thoroughly after eating, will make dua on his behalf by saying, ‘(May) Allah protect you from the fire of hell, like you have protected me from shaitaan’. It is mentioned in another narration that the plate makes Istighfar for him (asks for him to be forgiven).

(30) Commence eating with salt and (31) end with salt. It alleviates 70 illnesses. [Bazaazia, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: It is Makruh to eat on the streets and in the market place.

Law: If pieces of bread have piled up on the eating mat, either eat it or feed it to the chickens, cows or goats etc. Otherwise, leave it somewhere carefully, where the birds or ants will eat it. Never throw it onto a road (pathway). [Bazaazia]

Law: Neither should you find fault with food, nor should you say that the food is bad. Rasoolullah  never found any fault with food. If he wished he ate it, if not he left it.

Law: In India it is a practice, that when someone enters whilst you are eating, people generally invite him to join in the meal. They say, please join us in our meal. However, if those who are eating do not offer them to join in the meal, they then taunt them about it and say, ‘they didn’t even offer us to join them’. It is a good practice to invite other Muslims to join you whilst eating. However, it is necessary for those who are inviting someone; to do so with sincerity and not merely as a formality to show that they have asked. It has also been noted that sometimes when someone is asked to join in a meal, he replies by saying Bismillah. One should not say this at this juncture,

as there is no sense in saying ﷲﺍ

ﻢﺴ

at this time (i.e. it is not

appropriate). The learned Ulama have strictly cautioned us against saying ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ at such an instance. The Ulama have mentioned that it is more appropriate to mention some words of Dua, such as, Allah grant you barkat! May Allah bless you abundantly!

Law: If a father is in (urgent) need of provisions belonging to his son and is needy but does not have the amount to purchase it, then it is

permissible for the father to use the goods of the son without any compensation (payment). However, if he has the amount to purchase it, but he is not able to get the goods, then he may pay the compensation (price) and use it. This is in the case where the son is Na Laa’ik (i.e. incapable or inefficient) and if he is inefficient, then the father may use his belongings even without need. [Alamgiri]

Law: If a person has become so feeble due to hunger that he is not even able to walk out of his house to explain his plight to others, then is Fard upon whoever hears of his plight, to provide him with something to eat, so that he may become able enough to leave his home. If he was not given any assistance and died of hunger, then all those who were aware of his condition are sinners. Now if one person in particular is aware of his condition, but even he is in such a position that he does not have anything to give him, then it is Fard upon him to mention his plight to others and to ask others for something, and to then give it to him; and if this was not done and the person died, then all those who were aware of his condition are sinful; and if this person is strong enough to leave his home but does not have the capacity to work and earn, then he should go to the people and ask for assistance, and it is Waajib (compulsory) upon those who have something that can be given as Sadqa, to give something to him. However, if that needy person is able to work and earn, he should work in order to earn some money. It is not Halaal for him to ask for help (i.e. beg) in such a circumstance. If a needy person is not able to work but he has the ability to go to the homes of people and beg (ask for help), then it is Fard upon him to do this. If he did not do this and died due to starvation, he will be held accountable (i.e. he will be regarded as being sinful). [Alamgiri]

Law: If a few drops of perspiration, saliva or tears dripped (into the food) whilst eating, it will not cause the food to become Haraam. The

food can be eaten. Similarly, if something pure mixed with water, but caused one to feel abhorrence; drinking it is still permitted. [Alamgiri]

Law: If one finds a piece of dung in the roti and it (the dung) is hardened, then break off that piece and throw it away. The entire roti will not be regarded as being Najis (contaminated – impure), and if it has some softness in it, then it should not be eaten at all. [Alamgiri]

Law: If one sees a piece of roti (bread) in a gutter or in any other impure place, then it is not necessary for him to pick it up, wash it and keep it in some other place. [Alamgiri]

Law: If a human tooth is crushed together with wheat in a mill, then neither is one allowed to eat this flour and nor can it be fed to any animal. [Alamgiri]

Law: It is Haraam (totally forbidden) to eat rotten meat. [Alamgiri]

Law: If one enters an orchard and finds fruit scattered on the ground, then unless one does not acquire the permission of the owner of the orchard, he is not allowed to eat the fruit. There are two ways of acquiring permission: Saraahatan (Explicitly Clear) or Dalaalatan (Evidently implying). One is where explicit (i.e. clear) permission is given, where the owner has said that whatever fruit have fallen (from the tree) can be eaten. The second is when the permission is based on the fact that it is well known and a common practice in such a place, that the owners of the orchards do not forbid people from eating the fallen fruit. However, it is not permissible to break the fruit from the trees and then eat them. However, there is an abundance of the fruit and it is known that the

owner will not take offence in you doing so. Then to break the fruit from the trees and eat them is also permissible. However, under no circumstance is it permitted to carry away fruit from the orchard. [Alamgiri]

All the above mentioned rules are based on well known and common practice, and if there is no prevalent and common practice prevailing there and one is aware that eating from the orchard will be offensive to the owner, then to eat from it is not permissible.

Law: During the autumn months, the trees shed their leaves. If the leaves are useful, then to take them away is not permissible. If they are of no use to the owner, like in our country (India) when the trees shed their leaves, and the owner does not make use of them, but rather those who use it in the furnace to parch grain take them away, then to take such leaves is not objectionable. [Alamgiri]

Law: A person went to his friend’s home and without permission, he ate whatever food he found there, or if he went into his friend’s orchard, broke fruit of the tree and then ate it. If he knows that his friend will not take offence to this, then it is permissible for him to do this. However, he must contemplate accurately here, because in some cases it seems like the friend does not take offence, but in reality such actions offend him. [Alamgiri]

Law: To slice the roti with a knife is the way of the Christians. Muslims should abstain from this. However, there is no harm in doing so, if there is a necessity, such as if one needs to slice the current day loaf of bread, by cutting it into halves, so as to serve each person with one half during a function or when milk bread is served. Similarly there is no harm in slicing (carving) a whole roasted thigh piece.

Law: The manner of the Muslim is to sit on the ground etc. when eating. To eat at a table whilst sitting on chairs, is the manner of the Christians. We should avoid this. Muslims should emulate the pious predecessors in everything that they do. We should never adopt the ways of the unbelievers.

Law: When cooking leavened bread, yeast is purchased from the baker and on the same token, the baker takes away a portion of their flour. There is no harm in this. [Alamgiri]

Law: There are people who jointly collected money and then prepared a meal, in which all of them will partake. All of them contributed equal amounts of money, but some will eat more whilst others will eat less. There is no harm in this. Similarly, if a few Musafirs (travellers) kept their provisions together and then sat down to eat all together, there is still no harm in doing this, even though someone may eat more whilst another might eat less, or even if the provisions of some were good whilst the provisions of others were not the same. [Alamgiri]

Law: When cleaning the teeth with a toothpick, if any strands of food etc. come out of the teeth, it is best to discard of it. However, if one swallows it, there is still no harm. One should not throw the toothpick or anything else that was used to clean the teeth in front of anyone, but one should keep it with him until such time that a basin etc. is brought around, wherein it can be discarded. Do not make Khilaal of the teeth with picks from fruit trees or flowers. [Alamgiri]

When making khilaal of the teeth it is best to use the toothpick acquired from the Neem (Margosa)1 tree.

The reason for this is that its bitterness helps to cleanse the mouth well and it is also very beneficial to the gums. Broom sticks can also be used for this purpose. This should only be done if they have not been used before.

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1. The Margosa (Neem) is an evergreen tree found in semi and sub tropical regions, common to India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka etc. It is also known as the azadirachta indica.

Chapter 2

Etiquettes of Drinking Water

Hadith 1: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah  drank water in three breaths. In the narration of Muslim Shareef it futher mentions that he  used to say, ‘Drinking in this manner quenches (the thirst) even more. It is (also) good for the health and pleasant.’

Hadith 2: It is in Tirmizi from Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Do not drink water in a single breath, like a camel drinks, but drink in two or three sips, and say ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ when drinking, and Praise Allah when moving the drinking vessel (cup or glass etc.) away from your mouth’.

Hadith 3: Abu Dawud and ibn Majah have reported from Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  cautioned us against blowing and breathing into the vessel.

Hadith 4: Tirmizi reported from Abu Sa’eed Khudri ؓ that Nabi

 cautioned us against blowing in that which you drink. A person said that sometimes we notice dust particles in the vessel. He  said, ‘drop it out.’ The person said, ‘I am not satisfied by drinking in a single breath.’ He  said, ‘move the vessel away from your mouth and take a breath.’

Hadith 5: Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Abu Sa’eed Khudri ؓ that Rasoolullah  forbade us from drinking from the portion of a vessel that is broken, and from blowing into drinks.

Hadith 6: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  forbade drinking from the mouth (opening) of a water skin (Mushk).

Hadith 7: It is in Sahih Bukhari, Muslim and Sunan of Tirmizi from Abu Sa’eed Khudri ؓ that Rasoolullah  forbade (us from) drinking, by way of twisting (i.e. turning over) the mouth of a water skin.

Ibn Majah also reported this Hadith from Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر and in this narration, he also mentioned that after Huzoor  forbade this, a person woke up at night and turned over the mouth of a water skin (Mushk) in order to drink water, (and) a snake appeared from inside it.

Hadith 8: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Anas ؓ that Nabi  forbade (us from) drinking water whilst standing.

Hadith 9: It is cited in Sahih Muslim Shareef from Abu Hurairah

ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Under no circumstances should any person drink water whilst standing, and whosoever does so forgetfully, should spew out that water’.

Hadith 10: It is in Bukhari and Muslim from Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر He says, ‘I presented a pail of Zam-Zam (water) to Nabi-e-Kareem  which he  drank whilst standing’.

Hadith 11: It is in Sahih Bukhari that Hazrat Ali ؓ prayed his Zuhr Salaah and thereafter he sat down to administer the needs of the people, in the open Courtyard of Kufa. Water was brought to him at the time of Asr. He drank some and then performed wudu (ablution). Thereafter, he stood up, drank the remaining wudu water and said, ‘People say that it is Makruh to stand whilst drinking water, but I have done just as Nabi  has done.’ The meaning of this, is that people say this in an absolute manner, that it is Makruh to drink water whilst standing (whereas this is not an absolute rule), and this

is not the ruling regarding the remaining water of wudu. It is actually Mustahab (desirable) to stand whilst drinking it. Similarly it is Sunnat to stand whilst drinking the Water of Zam Zam. Both these types of water are exempted from this rule (i.e. that one must sit whilst drinking). The wisdom behind this is that when a person drinks water whilst standing, the water immediately flows through all parts of the body, and this is harmful. However, both these types of waters are full of blessings (barkat) and the actual objective is to attain blessings from them. It is thus beneficial for these to reach the entire body. Some people also mention that the Jhoota (Left over) water of a Muslim should also be drank whilst standing, but I (Sadrush Shariah) have not seen this in any Kitaab (authentic book). I have only found distinction regarding two types of water in the

Books ﷲﺍ ﺪﻨﻋ ﻢﻠﻌﻟﺍو.

Hadith 12: Tirmizi reported that Kubsha

ﺎ ﻨﻋ

ﺎﻌ

ﷲﺍ ر

says,

‘Rasoolullah  visited my home, and the water skin was hanging, so he drank from the mouth of it whilst standing (The Ulama have attributed the indication of permissibility by way of this practice of Huzoor ). I cut off the mouth of the water skin and kept it away (preserved it as Tabaruk).’ The reason for her cutting of the mouth off the water skin and keeping it away was on the basis of it being regarded by her as a Tabaruk (Sacred Relic), because the Holy mouth of Huzoor-e-Akram  had touched it. (She thus) regarded it as a means of blessing and knew that through it illnesses would be alleviated.

Hadith 13: It is in Sahih Bukhari from Hazrat Jaabir ؓ that Nabi

 and Hazrat Abu Bakr ؓ visited an Ansari, who was engrossed in watering the trees in his orchard. Rasoolullah  said, ‘Do you have some day old water in an old water skin (If so, then bring it forth), if not, we will put our mouths to the vessel and drink’. He said, ‘I have

some day old water in an old water skin at my home’. He went into his humble home, brought out water, poured it into a basin and then extracted some goats’ milk into it. Rasoolullah  drank from it. Again, he poured water into it and extracted more milk into it, and the Companion of the Nabi  drank from it.

Hadith 14: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Anas ؓ that goats’ milk was extracted for Nabi  and the water from the well at the home of Anas ؓ was mixed with it. It was mixed to make Las’see (A Milk or Curd Drink). It was then presented to Huzoor , so Huzoor  drank it. On the left of Huzoor  was Hazrat Sayyiduna Abu Bakr ؓ and on Huzoor’s  right was a Bedouin. Hazrat Umar ؓ said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! Please give it to Abu Bakr ؓ’. Huzoor  gave it to the Bedouin, because he was on the right. He then said, ‘The one who is on the right hand side is entitled to it, then after him, the one who is on his right. Thus, always give precedence to the one on the right’.

Hadith 15: It is Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Sahl ibn Sa’ad ؓ that a vessel (plate or bowl etc.) was presented to Nabi . Huzoor  drank from it and on the right of Huzoor  was the youngest person (Abdullah ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر) and the very senior Ashaab-e-Kiraam were on the left. Huzoor  said, ‘O young boy! If you permit, then I may pass it over to the seniors (elder ones).’ He said, ‘I will not give priority to others over me, when it is concerning partaking in that which the Nabi  has drank from. (So) Huzoor  gave it to him.’

Hadith 16: In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim it is reported on the authority of Huzaifa ؓ that Huzoor  said, ‘Do not wear silk fabric and silk garments, and neither should you drink in silver or gold

vessels, nor eat from silver or gold dishes, for these are for the unbelievers in this world and for you in the hereafter’.

Hadith 17: Tirmizi reported from Zahri that Rasoolullah 

preferred sweet and cold things to drink.

Hadith 18: It is in Ibn Majah on the authority of Abdullah ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that the Holy Prophet  forbade us from drinking in a manner whereby we bend over, whilst lying on the stomach, placing your mouth into water, and do not drink water using only one hand like those with whom Allah is displeased. When drinking water at night from any vessel, shake it first, unless it is covered, for if it is covered, then there is no need to shake it. He who has the ability to drink from a vessel, but still drinks out of his hands due to humility, Allah ta’aala records good deeds for him equal to the fingers on his hands. The hand was the vessel of Hazrat Esa &,; for he had even thrown away his drinking vessel and said, ‘This too is a product of the world.’

Hadith 19: Ibn Majah reported from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Wash your hands and drink water from it, for there is no vessel more pure than the hand’.

Hadith 20: Muslim, Ahmed and Tirmizi have reported from Abu Qatadah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said that the Saaqi1 should be the last to drink.

Hadith 21: Dailmi reported from Hazrat Anas ؓ that Huzoor  said, ‘Suck in the water when drinking it, for it is pleasant and is good for digestion and is a protector against illnesses’.

image

1. The Saaqi: refers to the person who is distributing the water to the people.

Hadith 22: Ibn Majah reported from Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر. She said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! Which items are not Halaal to refuse?’ He

 said, ‘Water, Salt and fire’. She says, I asked, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! I understand regarding water, but why is it not halaal to refuse salt and fire?’ He said, ‘O Humaira! One, who gave fire, has actually given as Sadqa all that which has been cooked by the fire and one who gives salt has given as Sadqa all that food which has been seasoned by the salt. Whosoever gave just one sip of water to a Muslim at a place where water is available, then it is like he has saved his neck (life), and one who feeds just a sip of water to a Muslim at a place where water is not available, then it is like he has brought him back to life’.

Laws of Jurisprudence Related To Drinking

Always pronounce ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ before drinking water, and drink with the right hand, and in three breaths, in a manner whereby you move the vessel away from the mouth every time you drink, so as to take a breath. In the first and second breaths, you should drink just one sip each, and in the third breath, you may drink as much as you wish. Drinking in this manner quenches the thirst. Drink water in sucking motion and do not drink huge gulps at a time. Say ﷲﺪﻤﺤﻟﺍ ‘Alhumdulillah’ after you have completed drinking.

Nowadays, many people drink water by holding the glass or cup with their left hand. They especially regard this (holding the glass with right hand) during eating as being contrary to good manners. This etiquette of theirs is actually the etiquette of the Christians. The Islamic Etiquette is to drink with the right hand. Nowadays, another manner that is being commonly practiced is that after drinking water, the remaining water in the glass is thrown away. It is said that

such water is now regarded as left over water and cannot be given to anyone else to drink. People have learnt this from the Hindus. This is not an Islamic manner, and there is no such thing as catching an illness (just by itself) or getting contaminated in Islam. There is no sense in abstaining from partaking in the left-overs of Muslims and to throw away water merely on the grounds of this is Israaf (i.e. to be wasteful).

Law: It is Makruh to place the mouth against the opening (mouth) of the water skin (Mushk) when drinking. In doing so, how will one know if something harmful has entered (i.e. lodged itself) into the opening? [Alamgiri]

Law: Similar to this ruling is the ruling concerning drinking water from the spout of a spouted jug, unless one has checked thoroughly to make sure that there is nothing (harmful) inside. The same ruling applies to drinking water from the opening of a long necked clay pot or goblet (also known as a Saraahi).

Law: The water of a Sabeel (wayside-stall erected for drinking water) may also be consumed by the wealthy. However, none is allowed to take away any water from there to their homes, as it has been kept there, so that those passing by may drink from it, and not so that it may be taken home. However, if permission is granted for this by those who have placed the Sabeel there, then one may take this water. [Alamgiri]

During the winter months, many Musjids have water warmed up in water carriers (geysers), so that the Musal’lees (worshippers) who come to the Musjid may perform wudu or ghusl with this water. This water too should only be utilised there. It is not permitted to take it home. The same applies to the spouted jugs etc. which belong to the

Musjid. They must be utilised there only and cannot be taken home. Some people fill fresh water in the jugs and take this home. This is also Na Jaa’iz (impermissible).

Law: Sometimes, water from Wudu is left over in the spouted jugs. Some people tend to throw away this water. To do this is not permissible, and is regarded as being wasteful.

Law: The remaining Wudu water and the Water of Zam Zam should be consumed whilst standing. One must sit whilst drinking any other water.

Chapter 3

Regarding Walima (The Wedding Feast) And Entertaining Guests

Hadith 1: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Anas ؓ that Nabi  saw signs of yellowness on Abdur Rahmaan ibn Auf ؓ (in other words he noticed sandy saffron like colour on his body or clothing). He  asked, ‘What is this?’ (i.e. this colour should not be on the body of a male. How did this colour appear on your body?). He said, ‘I married a lady and this yellowish colour rubbed off from her body on to me’. Rasoolullah  said, ‘Allah allow it to be blessed for you! You should arrange a Walima (wedding feast) even if it is with a single goat, or (he  said) with just one goat’.

Hadith 2: It is in Bukhari and Muslim from Anas ؓ. He says that

Huzoor  hosted the Walima of Zainab ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر in with such

grandeur, that he did not do so for any other of the Azwaaj-e- Mutahiraat. He  did the Walima with one goat. In other words this was a very grand Walima compared to all the others, as the meat of an entire goat was prepared during this Walima. It is mentioned in another narration cited in Sahih Bukhari Shareef on the authority of Anas ؓ that after the Zifaf1 with Hazrat Zainab bin Jah’sh ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر Huzoor  hosted the Walima in which everyone was treated to stomach full of Roti and meat.

Hadith 3: It is in Sahih Bukhari from Anas ؓ that on the return from Khaibar, between Khaibar and Madina, due to the Zifaf of Hazrat Safiya ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر Huzoor  remained there for 3 nights. He  invited the Muslims to a Walima. There was neither meat nor bread at the Walima. Huzoor  gave the command and the eating mats were spread out. Khajoor2, Paneer3 and Ghee4 were served. It is mentioned in the narrations of Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah that during the Walima Feast of Hazrat Safiya ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر Situ5 and dates were served.

image

  1. The Zifaf refers to the night of the consummation of marriage.

    Hadith 4: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abdullah ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that the Huzoor  said, ‘When a person is invited to a Walima, he should attend it’.

    Hadith 5: It is in Sahih Muslim from Jaabir ؓ that Huzoor  said, ‘When someone is invited to a meal, he should accept (the invitation), then if he wishes, he may either eat or not’.

    Hadith 6: In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah ؓ it is narrated that Huzoor  said, ‘A bad meal (feast) is that Walima feast to which only the wealthy are invited and the poor are left out. Whosoever rejected an invitation (i.e. he rejected it without a valid reason), he has disobeyed the command of Allah and His Rasool ’.

    It is mentioned in a narration of Muslim Shareef that a Walima feast is regarded as a bad feast, when those who attend it (i.e. those who attend such gatherings happily) are shunned from it, and those who reject it (i.e. its virtue) are invited to it. Whosoever has rejected an invitation has disobeyed Allah and His Rasool .

    Hadith 7: Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Abdullah ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Huzoor  said, ‘One who was invited and did not accept it, has disobeyed Allah and His Rasool  and whosoever attended without an invitation, has sneaked in as a thief, and emerged after plundering’.

    image

    Cont. from pg.86…..

  2. Khajoor is the name given to dates in the Urdu language.

  3. Paneer is a non-melting farmer cheese or curd cheese made by curdling heated milk with some lemon juice etc. and does not contain rennet.

  4. Ghee is pure butter oil.

  5. Situ is a sweet non-alcoholic beverage made from parched barley.

Hadith 8: Tirmizi reported on the authority of Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ؓ that Huzoor  said, ‘(During Weddings) the feast of the first day is Haq (i.e. it is proven and should be done), the feast of the second day is Sunnat, and the Feast of the third day is Sum’a (i.e. that which is done for attaining name and fame). Whosoever does anything so that it is heard about (for fame) then Allah will cause him to hear. In other words, he will be punished’.

Hadith 9: Abu Dawud reported from Ikrama ؓ that Rasool  disallowed us from eating at the home of two people who host banquets (invitations) to compete (with one another) and to be boastful.

Hadith 10: Imam Ahmed and Abu Dawud reported from a certain Sahabi that Rasool  said, ‘When two people come over to invite you at the same time, then accept the invitation of the person whose door is closer to your door and if one of them came first, then accept the invitation of the one who came first’.

Hadith 11: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Mas’ud Ansari ؓ that an Ansari, whose epithet was Abu Shu’aib, commanded his slave to cook an amount of food that will suffice for five people. He said, ‘I wish to invite Nabi  and five of his Companions’. A small amount of food was prepared and he presented himself to invite Huzoor . Another person went along with Huzoor . Huzoor  said, ‘Abu Shu’aib! This person has come along with us. If you wish, you may permit him to join us and if you wish you may refuse’. He said ‘I am permitting him’.

In other words, if someone is invited and another person tags along with him, he should make it known to the host that he did not bring him along, and thereafter the host has the right to either grant him

permission to join in the meal or not. If he does not make it known, then it will be offensive to the host in that he brought along others with him, without being asked to do so.

Hadith 12: Baihaqi has reported in Sha’bul Imaan from Imraan bin Haseen ؓ that Huzoor  cautioned us against accepting the invitation of fasiqs (open transgressors).

Hadith 13: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah

ؓ that Huzoor  said, ‘One who has Imaan in Allah and in the Last Day, should respect his guest and one who has Imaan in Allah and in the Last Day should not cause harm to his neighbour, and one who has Imaan in Allah and in the Last Day should either speak good words or remain silent’. It is in one narration that the one who has Imaan in Allah and in the Last Day should keep good family ties.

Hadith 14: In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim it is reported from Abu Shuraih Ka’abi ؓ that Rasool  said, ‘One who has Imaan in Allah and the Last Day should respect his guest. One day and night is his assessment (i.e. you should serve him meticulously for an entire day and you should prepare sumptuous meals for him according to your means). Entertaining (the guest) is for three days (i.e. after one day, present to him whatever is available) and after three days, it is Sadqa. It is not Halaal (lawful) for the guest to remain at his (the hosts) home for more than three days, thereby causing him inconvenience’.

Hadith 15: Tirmizi reported on the authority of Abil Ahwas Jashmi who reported from his father. He says, I said ‘Ya Rasool’Allah!

 Please inform me (what should be done in this case), I went to the home of a person and he did not entertain me appropriately (as a guest). Now if he visits my home, should I entertain him or should I

treat him accordingly (i.e. should I settle the score)?’ He  said, ‘Rather you should entertain him (as a guest should be entertained)’.

Hadith 16: Ibn Majah reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasool

 said, ‘It is Sunnat for you to walk your guest to the door, when he is departing’.

Laws of Jurisprudence

The Walimah Invitation (Feast) is Sunnat. Walima means to hold a feast according to your means, (for the purpose of feeding) your friends, relatives, elders, family members and those in your locality, on the morning after Zifaf (consummation of marriage). To sacrifice an animal and prepare food for this purpose is permissible. Those who are invited should oblige and accept the invitation, as attending the Walima will bring happiness to the host. Regarding whether it is Sunnat or Waajib to attend the Walima when invited, then in this regard, the statements of the Ulama are in support of both. However, it is clear that to accept this invitation is Sunnat-e-Mu’akkadah. With the exception of the Walima, it is also virtuous to attend other invitations. If the person (who has been invited) is not fasting, it is Afdal (more virtuous) for him to partake in the meal which has been provided, as this is to share in the happiness of your fellow Muslim brother. One should still attend the Walima even if he is fasting, and make Dua for the host. With the exception of the Walima, the ruling for other invitations is also the same, i.e. if one is not fasting, then he should partake in the meal provided, and if he is fasting, then he should make Dua for the host. [Alamgiri – Raddul Muhtar]

Law: The ruling cited above is only applicable when the person who is presenting the invitation intends to do so to fulfil the Sunnat, and if the gathering is being hosted for name and fame and so that people may praise the host, as we see many people do today. It is

better not to attend such invitations. The Ahl-e-Ilm (People of Knowledge – Ulama) should especially not attend such gatherings. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: It is only Sunnat to attend an invitation when one knows that it will be free of any singing and music or amusement and games (i.e. improper entertainment). If one is aware that these obscenities will take place at such a gathering, then one should not attend. If after arriving there one notices these absurdities taking place here, and if this is happening where you are (seated), you should leave. If it is taking place in another portion of the building and not in the part of the building where the food is being served, then one may sit there and partake in the meal. Now, if this person is capable of stopping them from this (practice), he should make an attempt to stop them, and if he does not have the capability to this, then he should make sabr (remain patient). This ruling applies to a person who is not a religious leader. If he is a leader and one who others follow, for example, if he is from amongst the Ulama and Masha’ikh, then if they are not able to put a stop to what is happening there, they should leave. Neither should they remain seated there, nor should they eat there. If one already knew that these things will be taking place there, then whether the person is a leader or not, for either one to go there is not permissible. This is even if it is not happening in the section of the building wherein they are, but it is taking place in another section of the building. [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: If amusement and frivolous activities are taking place at such gatherings and one knows that if he attends, then such activities will be halted, then in such a case, he should go with this intention (i.e. with the intention of having those improper activities halted), because his attendance at such a gathering, will cause those activities which are contrary to the Shariah to be suspended.

However, if one knows that by him not attending, it will be an admonition to them and they will not resort to such bad customs, because they regard his attendance at this gathering to be necessary (i.e. of importance), and (they know that) if he finds out that there will be such activities taking place at weddings and celebrations, then he will not attend their celebrations; then it is necessary upon him not to attend under such circumstances, so that it may be a note of caution to the people and so that they may abstain from such bad customs. [Alamgiri]

Law: The invitation for the Walima feast is only on the first day or on the day after. In other words, this feast can only be for two days. After this, the Walima and wedding ceremony has ended. [Alamgiri]

Law: In India, the series of events pertaining to weddings remains for many days at a time. To go beyond the Sunnat is to be boastful and to do it for name and fame. To abstain from this is necessary.

Law: It is permissible for a guest to pass over an item to someone else, at the same spread, provided he is sure that the host will not be offended by this. If he knows or if he is unsure if the host will be offended, he should not pass it to another person. [Alamgiri]

Law: Some people serve the best foods to dignitaries on one spread and they just serve common (ordinary) things to the poor. Even though one should not behave in this manner, as it causes the feelings of the poor to be hurt. However, in such a case if one before whom the good things are kept, took something from it and gave it to someone who does not have it, then it would appear that the host would take offence to this, because if he really wished to serve this to them, he would have spread it out before them himself. At least, this is regarded as a doubtful case. It is thus impermissible to give

something to them in such a situation. However, if it is from the same variety of food, such as bread or meat and the bread that was kept before one of them is finished and another person took some and passed it over to them, then it would seem apparent that the host would not take offence to this.

Law: If one is partaking in a meal at the home of someone else and a beggar asks for something. Then in such a case, it is not permissible for him (the guest) to give a piece of roti (bread) to the beggar, as the host left it there for him to eat, and he did not make him (the guest) the Maalik (owner) of it, whereby giving him the right to give it to whomsoever he wishes. [Alamgiri]

Law: If the meal is being eaten on two different spreads, then a person may not take something from one spread and pass it over to someone eating on the other spread, unless he is completely certain that the host will not be offended by this. [Alamgiri]

Law: If whilst eating, the child of the host comes over, he (the guest) can not give anything from his meal to the child or to the servant of host. [Alamgiri]

Law: If the food has become contaminated (become impure – Na Paak), it is not permissible to feed it to an insane person, a child, or to such an animal which is Halaal to consume. [Alamgiri]

Law: There are four things that are essential for a guest: (1) to sit where asked to sit. (2) To be satisfied with whatever has been placed before him and it should not be so that he makes utterances such as; ‘I eat better than this at my own house’ or other statements such as people make whilst sitting together in feasts nowadays. (3) Not to get

up without the permission of the host. (4) To make dua for the host, when he does get up.

The host should occasionally say to the guest, ‘please have some more’, but he should not insist on this, so that by insisting, the guest does not eat more than he is able to, thus causing it to become harmful to him.

The host should not remain completely silent and he should not serve the meal and then himself disappear, rather he should remain there (with the guests). He should also not become upset with his servants etc. in the presence of his guests. If he is a person who has sufficient provisions, he should not due to the guests reduce the amount of food of the household. The host should personally be courteous towards his guests and he should not leave this duty to the servants, as showing courtesy to the guest is the Sunnat of

Hazrat Ibraheem ﻢﻴﻠﺴﺘﻟﺍو ةﻮﻠﺼﻟﺍ ﻴﻠﻋ. If there are only a few guests, then the host should sit down to eat with them, as hospitality demands this. If there are many guests, then one should not sit down with them, but one should be occupied in serving and feeding them. A person who causes discomfort to the guests should not be made to sit with them. [Alamgiri]

Law: When all complete eating, arrange for their hands to be washed. Do not throw away the water after washing the hand of each person, before washing the hand of the next.1 [Alamgiri]

Law: If someone sent you a gift and such a person has both Halaal and Haraam possessions, but most of his possessions are Halaal, then there is no harm in accepting (his gift). The same rule applies to

image

1. This refers to the customary washing with the jug and bowl.

partaking in a feast at his home. You should only partake in the meal if you are certain. If most of his possessions (i.e. wealth) are Haraam, neither should you accept his gift, nor should you partake in a feast at his home, until such time that you are not certain, that the things which are presented to you are Halaal. [Alamgiri]

Law: If a person is your debtor and he has invited you to a meal, (then in such a case), if he used to even invite you in this manner before taking the loan, there is no harm in accepting his invitation, but if he used to invite you (to his home once) every twenty days and now he is doing so in ten days, and he has even prepared more sumptuous meals than in the past, then do not accept this invitation, as this is due to the loan. [Alamgiri]

Chapter 4

Rules Regarding Crockery

Law: To eat and drink in gold or silver vessels and to apply oil from little gold and silver cups, or to apply ittar (fragrance) from pomanders made from them, or to inhale incense from fire pans made from them, are all disallowed. This prohibition is applicable to both men and women. Women are allowed to wear jewellery made from gold and silver. With the exception of jewellery, the use of gold or silver for other purposes is not permissible for both, men and women. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: To eat with gold or silver spoons, to apply surmah (stibium) using a gold or silver Sala’i (applicator), to apply surmah from a surmah holder made from gold and silver, to look in mirrors made from them, to write with gold or silver pens and ink, to make wudu with a jug or basin made from gold or silver or to sit on chairs made from them is not allowed, for both men and women. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: It is permissible for women to wear gold or silver mirrored thumb rings, but even for a female to look at her face in a mirrored thumb ring is not permissible.

Law: The uses of gold and silver effects are prohibited in the condition when the actual purpose is to use it (i.e. that particular effect). If the actual objective is not this (i.e. to use it), then there is no prohibition in this regards. An example of this is food which is kept in a gold or silver plate or small bowl. If it is left in this, then it is regarded as a waste of wealth (lavishness). One should remove it from there and place it in another vessel (plate etc.) and then eat it, or in the case where one took some water in the hand from it and then drank it (i.e. one used the hand as a drinking vessel), or in the case where oil was kept in a (gold or silver) goblet and it was not used directly from it, but was poured into another utensil or taken in

the hand and then applied to the hair with the purpose that directly using it from the (gold or silver) vessel is not permissible. Now if one takes the oil out of it in this manner and then uses it, it is permissible. (However) if the oil was taken in the hand for the purpose of using it (i.e. applying it directly and not using the hand as a vessel to transfer the oil from the gold or silver container), but rather to make use of it, like when one takes oil from a small goblet (or bottle etc.) to directly apply it to the hair or beard, then in doing so, it is not abstaining from impermissible use, as this itself is to use it. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: To use gold and silver vessels for tea is not permissible. The same law applies to wearing a gold or silver watch on the hand. Actually, even to see time in it is not permissible, as the actual use of a watch is to see time in it. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If gold or silver effects are placed in a house exclusively for adornment and ornamentation; for example, (gold or silver) dishes, pen and ink pots (etc.) are arranged so that the house may be decorated, then there is no objection to this. Similarly, if one adorns the house with gold or silver chairs, tables and benches etc. and the objective is not for sitting on them, then there is no objection. [Durr- e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: When instructing children during the Bismillah Khwani1, silver ink pots, pens and small writing boards are brought (to the celebration). These items are not really used, but are rather given away (i.e. gifted) to the person who has instructed the child. There is no objection to this.

image

1. Bismillah Khwani is the traditional celebration held for the commencement of Islamic Studies of a child, usually when the child is 4 years, 4 months and 4 days old.

Law: With the exception of gold and silver, the use of all other types of vessels (dishware) such as copper, brass, lead and crystal etc. is permissible. The use of earthenware is the best. It is mentioned in the Hadith that, ‘Whosoever made the utensils of his home from earth (clay), the Angels shall descend to admire it. Copper and brassware should be plated. To use crockery made from copper or brass without plating them is Makruh. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: Utensils (vessels) which have gold or silver etchings (i.e. carvings or designs) on them may be used, as long as the designs are not on the actual area of used. For example, if there are silver decorations on a glass or bowl, then when drinking water, the mouth should not touch that portion on which there is gold or silver. Some are of the view that even the hands should not touch the area which has gold or silver on it. The first view is the accurate view. [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If the handle of a knife is made from gold or silver, its use is not permissible, because the manner of use is that the hand is placed on the handle, and in this case, the area of use thus has gold or silver on it. However, if its ferrule is made from gold or silver and the grip (handle) is not made from gold or silver, then there is no objection in using it, as there is no gold or silver on the area on which the hand is being placed. Similarly, if the nib of a pen (or pencil) is made from gold or silver, to write with it is not permissible as this is the actual part that is being used. If it (the gold or silver) is on the outer portion of the pen, then it is not impermissible.

Law: If there is gold or silver etching on a chair or bench or there is etching on the ground, then to sit on it is permissible, as long as you abstain from sitting on the actual area where the etching is.

The result of this is that, the use of such a thing which is made purely of gold or silver is absolutely impermissible and if it has gold or silver in numerous portions of it, then if the gold and silver is on the area of usage, then it is impermissible, otherwise it is permissible. An example of this is that to inhale incense from a silver fire pan is absolutely impermissible even though whilst breathing in the smoke (incense), the hand is not even touching the fire pan.

Similarly, if the pedestal of the Huqqa (Mogul pipe) is made from silver, then to smoke Huqqa from it is impermissible, even though the (smoking) person may not be touching the pedestal of the Huqqa. Similarly, if the mouthpiece or pipe of the Huqqa is made from gold or silver, to smoke from it is impermissible. However, if gold or silver threads have been used on different parts of the Huqqa tubes, then to smoke from that Huqqa is allowed, as long as there are no such (gold or silver) threads on the area of use. On a chair, the area of use is the seat on which one sits and the backrest on which a person rests the back and the arm rests on which the arms are placed. On a bench, the area of use is the seat and the same is for the saddle (on a horse etc.). To have a gold or silver stirrup is also impermissible and if there is any such etching on it, then this should not be on the area of use. The same ruling applies to the reigns and the tail piece of the harness. [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If there is gold or silver coating (plating/gilding) on crockery (dishware), then there is no objection to using this. [Hidaya]

Law: The same ruling applies regarding the frame of a mirror which has a gold or silver etching on it, and is not held (touched) when making using of it. [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: If there is gold or silver etching on the handle of a sword or on the handle of a knife or dagger, then the ruling regarding all of them is the same (as above). [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: The same ruling applies if gold or silver alphabets have been imprinted on clothing. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. The detailed explanation regarding this will follow in the discussion attire.

Law: It is permissible to mend broken crockery with gold or silver threads (wire). It is also permissible to make use of such crockery, as long as it is not used from that particular area, just as it has been mentioned in the Hadith that Huzoor-e-Aqdas  had a wooden bowl which broke, so it was mended with a silver wire, and this bowl was in the possession of Hazrat Anas ؓ.

Chapter 5

Reliability Of Khabar

(A Report / News)

Allah Almighty says in the Glorious Qur’an:

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“O you who Believe! If a transgressor (sinful person) comes to you with any information (news), then scrutinize it thoroughly, so that you may not cause harm to any nation unknowingly; then thereafter becoming regretful for that which you have done.” [Surah 49 Verse 6]

Law: If you sent your employee or bondsman, even though he may be a majoosi (fire-worshipper) or Hindu to purchase meat, and he returns with the meat and says that he purchased it from a Muslim or from a Kitaabi1, then this meat can be consumed; and if he says that the meat he brought has been purchased from a mushrik2 (polytheist), such as from a majoosi or Hindu, then to consume such meat is Haraam, because buying and selling is related to Mu’amilat3 and in Mu’amilat, the khabar of a kaafir is regarded as reliable, even though the issue of Hillat (lawfulness) and Hurmat (unlawfulness) is related to Diyaanat4 and in Diyanaat, the khabar of a kaafir is not regarded as being unacceptable, but since the actual khabar was related to purchasing (the meat), and the issue of Hillat and Hurmat is only an implicit matter (in this case). Thus, when the said khabar (information or news) is reliable, then inclusively this too will be confirmed. If the actual khabar would have been pertaining to lawfulness and unlawfulness, then it would have been regarded as unacceptable. [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar]

image

  1. A Kitaabi is one who is truly from amongst the People of the Book

  2. A mushrik refers to a polytheist (i.e. pagan) or idol worshipper

  3. Mu’amilat: refers to issues related to worldly or business matters etc.

  4. Diyanaat: refers to Issues of Faith (i.e. Religious Issues)

Law: The khabar of a kaafir is only regarded as reliable (i.e. acceptable) in the issues of Mu’amilat when there is [Ghaalib Gumaan] predominant likelihood that he is telling the truth. If there is predominant likelihood that he is being deceitful, then one should not act upon it (the information he gives). [Jawhara]

Law: Meat was purchased and later it was ascertained that the person from whom the meat was purchased from is a mushrik. If the meat was taken back so that it can be returned and he (the mushrik) mentions that the meat is from an animal that was slaughtered by a Muslim, it is still prohibited to eat the meat. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: Regarding the gift presented by a slave-girl, slave or a child, the information (given by them) is regarded as reliable. An example, if a child brings something to someone and says that my father sent this to you as a gift; that person is allowed to accept it and make use of it and if it is something to eat, then he may even eat from it. In the same way, if a slave-girl or slave gave him something saying, my master has sent this as a gift to you, and actually if both of them give this khabar regarding themselves, that our master has presented us both to you, then even this khabar is regarded as being acceptable. Hypothetically, even if the slave-girl gives this khabar regarding herself, then that person may also make ‘Watee’ with her (i.e. bed her). [Zail’i]

Law: If they (i.e. the slave-girl or slave) gave this khabar that Our Master or Guardian has granted permission for you to buy us, then even this khabar will be regarded as reliable, on condition that there is predominant likelihood regarding them telling the truth. Accordingly, if a child purchased something such as salt, chillies, tumeric or coriander and he gives khabar that he has the permission to purchase these things, then to sell these things to him is allowed;

and if there is a predominant likelihood that he is lying, then his word should not be accepted. An example of this is that he wishes to buy some sweetmeats or fruit etc. for a few cents and he says, ‘I have been given permission for this.’ Do not give credence to this, whereas in the said case it seems apparent that he was not given the money to purchase sweets etc. to eat. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

In other words, when there is a predominant likelihood that he does not have permission to purchase these things, such as when you feel that there is probability that he has hid the money and brought it with him, and is now using it to purchase the sweets. (In such a case, the doubt arises) why his family members have given money to (such young child) to purchase sweets (instead of purchasing it for him). Thus, in such a case, to even sell the sweetmeats to him is Na Jaa’iz (impermissible).

Law: A kaafir (unbeliever) or fasiq (open transgressor) gave khabar saying, ‘I have been appointed as the agent (representative) of a certain person, to sell a certain item for him.’ His information (Khabar) can be regarded as being reliable and the item may be purchased. Similarly, the information given by him will be regarded as acceptable in other issues pertaining to Mu’amilat, on condition that there is predominant likelihood that he is telling the truth. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: In the issues of Diyanaat, it is necessary for the Mukhbir1 to be Aadil2.

image

  1. The Mukhbir is the one presenting the information

  2. An Aadil is a just and righteous person

Diyanaat here refers to those issues which are between the servant and the Creator (i.e. regarding that which Allah has Commanded His servants), such as lawfulness, unlawfulness, impurities and purification (etc.). If with the issues of Diyaanat, there is also the case of Termination of Association; for example, if someone gives information regarding a husband and wife (wherein he mentions or claims) that both of them are foster brother and sister, then in evidence for this, simply being Aadil is not sufficient. However, the condition of being Aadil and number of witnesses are also necessary. In other words, those giving such information should either be two (adult) males or one (adult) male and two (adult) females, and all of them should be Aadil. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If an Aadil Muslim gives khabar regarding water wherein he says that the water is Najis (impure or contaminated with impurity), one should then not perform Wudu with it. On the contrary, if there is no other water, then Tayam’mum (dry ablution) should be performed. If a fasiq or a Mastoor1 gives information that the water is impure, one should then apply (the principles of) Tahar’ri2. If the heart is positively content that he is telling the truth, then the water should be thrown away and Tayam’mum should be performed. Do not make wudu (in such a case). However, if there is predominant likelihood that he is being untruthful, then one should perform Wudu (with this water) and as a precautionary measure it is also best to perform Tayam’mum. If a kaafir gives khabar of it (the water) being impure, and there is predominant likelihood that he is telling the truth, it is still best to discard the water and then perform Tayam’mum. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

image

  1. A Mastoor is one whose outer appearance is in accordance with the Shariah

  2. Tahar’ri means to make a decision based on deliberation and positive intuition

Law: If a single just person (Aadil) gave khabar that it (the water) is pure and another just person gave khabar that the water is impure, or if one just person gave khabar that, this animal was slaughtered by a Muslim and another just person gave khabar that it was slaughtered by a mushrik (polytheist). Then even in such a case, one should apply Tahar’ri and act on that regarding which there is a predominant likelihood (of it being correct). [Raddul Muhtar]

Chapter 6

Attire (Clothing)

Hadith 1: Hazrat Imam Bukhari ؓ reported from Hazrat Ibn

Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Eat whatever it is you

fancy and wear whatever it is you fancy, as long as it is free from two things; Lavishness and Pride (Arrogance)’.

Hadith 2: Imam Ahmed, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah report from Amr bin Shu’aib who narrates from his father, who narrates from his grandfather that Rasool  said, ‘Eat and Drink and give Sadqa (charity) and wear elegant clothes, as long as it is not associated to lavishness and pride’.

Hadith 3: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah  liked ‘Hibrah’ very much. This was a type of striped wrap (shawl), which was manufactured in Yemen.

Hadith 4: Tirmizi reported from Jaabir bin Sumrah ؓ. He says, I saw Nabi  on a full moonlit night. The Holy Prophet  was attired in a reddish robe. In other words, it (i.e. the robe) had reddish stripes on it. I would sometimes look at Huzoor  and sometimes I would look at the moon. According to me, Huzoor  was more beautiful than the moon.

Hadith 5: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Abu Burdah ؓ. He says that Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر brought out a small blanket with patches on it, and a thick Tahband (waistcloth) and said, ‘Huzoor  passed from this world in these clothes.’ (In other words, at the time of his Wafaat from this world, Huzoor  was wearing the same type of clothing)

Hadith 6: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah ؓ

that Huzoor  said, ‘Allah Ta’ Aala will not place His Divine Mercy

on a person who drags his tahband (waistcloth) out of pride’ (i.e. he wears it so long that it touches the ground).

It is in the narration of Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that, Allah will not place His Divine Mercy on a person who allows his garments to trail in a boastful manner.

It is also in Sahih Bukhari from him as well, that a person was dragging his tahband (waistcloth) in a boastful manner, so he was caused to sink into the ground. He will continue to sink into the ground until Qiyaamat.

Hadith 7: It is in Sahih Bukhari from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasool

 said, ‘The piece of the waist cloth which is below (over) the ankles is in the fire’.

Hadith 8: Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah report from Abu Saeed Khudri ؓ that Rasoolullah  says, ‘The waistcloth of a Momin is up to half the shins. If it is between the shin and the ankle, still there is no objection to this and whatever is below that is in the fire and on the Day of Qiyaamat Allah will not place His Divine Mercy on him, who allows his waistcloth to trail (on the ground) out of pride’.

Hadith 9: Abu Dawud, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah have reported from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘that ‘Asbaal’ in other words, the wearing of clothes trailing (on the ground) is not allowed and this (prohibition) refers to the waistcloth, Qamees (Upper Garment/Kurta etc.), the turban and everything else. Hazrat Umm-e- Salma ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر enquired regarding the ruling in this matter for the females. He  said, ‘Let it hang down one span in length (i.e. one span length from below half the shin)’. She said, ‘The foot of the

women will then be visible’. He  said, ‘Let it hang down (trail by) one hand length (and) not more than that’.

Hadith 10: It is in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Abdullah ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر. He says, ‘I passed by Rasoolullah  and my waistcloth was trailing a bit low’. He  said, ‘Abdullah! Wear your waistcloth higher, so I wore it higher.’ He  then said, ‘wear it even higher, so I wore it higher’. After this, I always made an effort to practice this’. Someone queried from Hazrat Abdullah ؓ regarding the height at which it should be worn and he said up to half way of the shin.

Hadith 11: In Sahih Bukhari it was narrated from Ibn Umar ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Allah will not place His Divine Mercy on that person who drags his garments out of pride’. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique ؓ enquired, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah!  my waistcloth ends up trailing (on the ground), unless I give particular attention to it (i.e. His waistcloth never used to remain set on his stomach, it used to slip downwards)’. Rasoolullah  said, ‘You are not of those who cause it to hang due to pride (i.e. this warning is for those whose intention is to wear the waistcloth so that it trails on the ground)’.

Hadith 12: Abu Dawud reported from Ikrama. He says, ‘I noticed that Hazrat Ibn Ab’bas ؓ was wearing his waistcloth in a manner that the edge of his waistcloth was at the back of his foot’. I asked, ‘Why do you tie (wear) the waistcloth in this manner?’ He replied by saying, ‘I saw Rasoolullah  tie (wear) his waistcloth in this manner’.

Hadith 13: Tirmizi and Abu Dawud have reported on the authority of Asma bint Yazeed ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر. She says that the sleeves of Rasoolullah’s  Qamees were up to his wrists.

Hadith 14: Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah have reported from Sumrah ؓ that Nabi Kareem  said, ‘Wear white clothing, for it is more pure and clean and shroud your deceased in it as well’.

Hadith 15: Ibn Majah reported from Abu Dardah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘The best clothes (are the ones) which you wear when presenting yourself before Allah, when going to your graves and in Musjids, (and these are) white ones’. This means it is best to wear white when performing Namaaz and to use white when shrouding your deceased.

Hadith 16: Tirmizi and Abu Dawud have reported from Abdullah ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر. He says that a person walked by wearing red clothing and he conveyed Salaam to Huzoor . Huzoor  did not reply to his Salaam.

Hadith 17: Abu Dawud reports from Sayyida A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Asma ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر came before Nabi  wearing thin clothing. Huzoor

 turned his face away and said, ‘O Asma! Once a female reaches puberty, then no portion of her body should be exposed, except for her face and her palms’.

Hadith 18: Imam Maalik reports from Alqama bin Abi Alqama and he reports from his mother that Hafsa bint Abdur Rahmaan visited Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر wearing a very thin stole (i.e. a scarf or a shawl). Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر tore up her stole and gave her one that was thick.

Hadith 19: Tirmizi reported from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that when Rasoolullah  would tie the turban, he would allow the shimla (loose end of the turban) to hang between both his shoulders.

Hadith 20: Baihaqi has reported in Sha’bul Imaan from Ubaada bin Saamit ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Adopt the tying (wearing) of the Amaama (Turban), for it is the sign of the Angels, and allow it (i.e. the shimla) to hang at the back’.

Hadith 21: Tirmizi reported from Rukana ؓ that Huzoor  said, ‘The distinction between us and the mushriks (polytheists) is that our turbans are worn (tied) on (top of our) hats’.

Hadith 22: Tirmizi reported from A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر. She says that, ‘Huzoor  said to me ‘A’isha! If you wish to meet with me (i.e. in the hereafter), then be content in this world with the amount of provisions which suffice a trooper (i.e. a rider or traveller), and avoid sitting in the company of the wealthy, and do not regard your clothing as old until you have not patched them’.’

Hadith 23: Abu Dawud reported from Abu Umaama ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Have you not heard! Have you not heard that to be in an insignificant condition is from Imaan. To be in an insignificant condition is from Imaan’. (Insignificant here refers to one who no one values because of his poverty etc)

Hadith 24: Imam Ahmed, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah reported from Ibn Umr ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Allah will dress the one who wears the garb of fame, with the garb of shame on the day of Qiyaamat’.

Clothing of Fame here refers to a person who dresses in good clothes out of pride (boastfulness) or it refers to that person who is not a Darvesh (Dervish), yet he dresses in a manner that causes the people to regard him as a Dervish; or it refers to a person who is not an Aalim, but dresses up in the garb of the Ulama and tries to deceive

people into believing that he is an Aalim (even though he isn’t). In other words, his objective of dressing in such a manner is to show some kind of stature (about himself).

Hadith 25: Abu Dawud reported from one Sahabi that Rasoolullah

 said, ‘The person who refrains from wearing good clothes out of humility, even though he has the capability of wearing it, Allah ta’aala will dress him in the Robe of Karaamat (Miraculous Garb)’.

Hadith 26: Imam Ahmed and Nasa’i have reported on the authority of Jaabir ؓ. He says that ‘Huzoor  came over to us and noticed a person whose hair was untidy and spread apart. He  said, ‘Can he not find something with which he may gather his hair properly (i.e. neaten it)?’ He  saw another person dressed in unclean clothes. He  said, ‘Can he not find something with which he may wash his clothes?’’

Hadith 27: Tirmizi reported on the authority of Abdullah ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Allah ta’aala loves for the sign of His Grace (Ne’mat) to be visible on His servant’.

Hadith 28: Imam Ahmed and Nasa’i have reported from Abul Ahwas and he in turn reported from his father. He says, ‘I presented myself before Rasoolullah  and my clothes were frail’. Huzoor  said, ‘Do you not have any riches?’ I replied by saying that ‘I did’. He

 asked, ‘What type of riches do you possess?’ I replied, ‘I have all types of wealth given to me by Allah; (I have) camels, cows, goats, horses and slaves’. He  said, ‘Allah has blessed you with riches, so the sign of His Grace and His Marvels should be visible on you’.

Hadith 29: In Sahih Bukhari it is reported from Hazrat Umar, Anas, Ibn Zubair and Abu Umaama ﻢ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Nabi Kareem 

said, ‘One who wears silk in this world will not wear it in the Hereafter’.

Hadith 30: In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ,aﻨﻋ 1ﺎﻌ: ﷲﺍ "ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘For the one who wears silk in this world, there is no share in the Hereafter’.

Hadith 31: In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim it is reported from Hazrat Umar ؓ that Rasoolullah  forbade the wearing of silk, except for this much, and Rasoolullah indicated this by bringing his two fingers together, the Kalima (Index) finger and the Middle finger.

It has been mentioned in one narration of Sahih Muslim that Hazrat Umar ؓ said during a Khutbah (sermon) that ‘Rasoolullah  forbade the wearing of silk, except for that which is equal to the span of two or three or four fingers’. In other words, a silk edging of that width can be used on any clothing.

Hadith 32: In Sahih Muslim on the authority of Asma bint Abu Bakr ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that she brought out a Kasrwani Jubbah (Robe), the collar of which was made from Dibaaj (a type of silk) and there were silk edgings on both slits. She said, ‘This is the Robe of Rasoolullah

 which was in the possession of Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر and when Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر passed away I took it into my possession. Huzoor  used to wear it and we rinse it and give its water to those who are ill, so that they may attain Shifa (are cured)’.

Hadith 33: Tirmizi and Nasa’i have reported from Abu Moosa Ash’ari ؓ that Nabi  said, ‘Gold and Silk are Halaal (lawful) for the women of my Ummat and Haraam (unlawful – forbidden) upon the men’.

Hadith 34: In Sahih Muslim it is reported on the authority of Abdullah ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر who says, ‘Rasoolullah  saw me wearing clothing which was dyed in safflower (coloured dye)’. He  said, ‘This is the clothing of the unbelievers. You should not wear them’. I asked, ‘should I wash it out?’ He  said, ‘that I should burn them’.

Hadith 35: Tirmizi reports from Abul Maleeh, who reports from his father that Rasoolullah  prohibited spreading out (laying) the hide of wild animals.

Hadith 36: Tirmizi reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  would commence from the right side when he wore his Qamees (Upper Garment).

Hadith 37: It is in Tirmizi and Abu Dawud on the authority of Abu Sa’eed Khudri ؓ that when Rasoolullah  wore any new clothing, he would address it by its name (by saying); Turban, Qamees or Shawl, and he would then recite this Dua:

ْو

‘ﮦ ْ ﺧ

ﻠﺌ ﺳ

ْ ﺗ ﻮْ

ﺪﻤْ

ﻟ ْﺍ ﻚ

ﻟ ﻢ ﻠﻟ

‘ ﻟ

ﻊ ﻨﺻ ﺎﻣ

و ﮦ ﻦﻣ

ﺑ ذﻮْ ﺍ و

‘ ﻟ

ﻊ ﻨﺻ ﺎﻣ

Hadith 38: It is reported in Abu Dawud on the authority of Mu’az ibn Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘One who wears his clothing

and reads: ٍةﻮ ﻗ

ﻻ' و

ْ '

لٍ ﻮْ

, _ْ

ْ

, ﻴْ , ﻨﻗ' V' ر

و ﺍﺬ'

ْ , ﺎﺴ'

ىْ ﺬ, ﻟ ﺍ , ﻠ: , ﻟ ﺪ ﻤْ' ﻟْ

will have his

previous sins forgiven’.

Hadith 39: Imam Ahmed reported from Abu Mutar ؓ that Hazrat

Ali ؓ purchased fabric for 3 dirhams. When wearing it, he read:

ﺪ ﻤْ ' ﻟْ

ْ , ر'ْ

, ,ﺑ ىْ ,رﺍو' ﺍ و س

ﺎﻨ ﻟﺍ ْ , i , , ﺑ ﻞ

ﻤ ﺠ' ' 'ﺍﺎﻣ

شﺎﻳ' ﺮ' ﻟﺍ ﻦ'

ْ , ﻗ' V' ر

ىْ ﺬ, ﻟ ﺍ , ﻠ: , ﻟ He then said, ‘I heard

Rasoolullah  reciting it’.

Hadith 40: Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi and Ibn Majah report from Abu Umaama ؓ that when Hazrat Umar ؓ wore a new set of clothing he

read: ْ , ﺎﻴ'

ْ , i , ,ﺑ ﻞ

ﻤ ﺠ' ' ﺍ' و

ْ , ر'ْ

, ,ﺑ ىْ ,رﺍو' ﺍ ﺎﻣ

ْ , ﺎﺴ'

ىْ ﺬ, ﻟ ﺍ , ﻠ: , ﻟ ﺪ ﻤْ' ﻟْ ﺍ' He then said, ‘I heard

from Rasoolullah  that whosoever recites this when wearing new clothes and gives his old clothes away as Sadqa, then in his lifetime and after his death, he will be in the ‘Kanaf’, ‘Hifz’ and ‘Satar’ of Allah’. All these three words have the same meaning. In other words, Allah will be his Protector and Guardian.

Hadith 41: Imam Ahmed and Abu Dawud reported from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘that the one who emulates any nation is from amongst them’. This Hadith is a Primary Principle with regards to whom we should emulate and whom we should not emulate, in the case of dressing, habits and conduct. To emulate the kufaar (unbelievers) and the sinful and corrupt people (Fusaaq-o- Fujaar) is not a good habit. To emulate the pious and the virtuous people is good. There are also different levels of emulating and based on this, the rulings regarding them differ. The lowest level of emulating the unbelievers and the sinful and corrupt people is that it is abominable. Muslims should show their distinction from such people, so that they may be (easily) recognised and they should not be mistaken for being non-Muslims.

Hadith 42: Abu Dawud reported from Ibn Ab’bas ؓ that Rasoolullah  cursed those women who imitate men and those men who imitate women.

Hadith 43: Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah

ؓ that Rasoolullah  cursed that male who dresses in the clothes

of females and he cursed that female who dresses in clothing that resembles that (clothing) of men.

Hadith 44: Abu Dawud reports on the authority of Imraan bin Haseenؓ that Nabi-e-Kareem  said, ‘Neither do I sit on a red saddle cloth and nor do I wear clothing that is dyed in safflower (colour), and I do not wear such a Qamees (Upper Garment), which has a silk cuff (i.e. not more than 4 finger span). Hear you! The perfume (fragrance) of males is that which has a scent and no colour and the perfume of females is that which has colour but no scent’.

In other words, the actual objective for males is the scent and not the colour, so it should be of light colour so that it does not stain the clothing or the body. Women should use a light perfume as their objective is that of adornment and this can be attained from deep coloured perfumes such as ‘Khalooq’. (When females) use strong scented perfumes, it unnecessarily attracts attention towards them.

Hadith 45: Tirmizi reported from Abu Rumtha Taimi ؓ. He says, ‘I presented myself before Nabi . Huzoor  was dressed in two green garments (sheets)’.

Hadith 46: Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Dahia bin Khalifaؓ that a few ‘Qubti’ fabrics were presented to (our) Nabi . Huzoor  blessed me with one and said ‘Split it into two lengths. Make a Qamees with one, and give the other piece to your wife, so that she may make an ‘Urhni’ (Scole – Long Scarf) with it’. Just before he left, Huzoor  said, ‘Ask your wife to attach another piece of fabric underneath it, so that the body is not visible through it’.

Hadith 47: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Hazrat A’isha ر ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ that the bedding on which Rasoolullah  rested was made

from leather, which was filled with date peels. It is in the narration of Muslim that the sacred pillow of Rasoolullah  was made from leather which was filled with date peels.

Hadith 48: It is in Sahih Muslim from Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah

 said that ‘one set of bedding is for a man and one is for his wife, and the third is for his wife and the fourth is for shaitaan’. In other words, to keep sufficient bedding for those in ones home and for visitors is permissible, but one should not keep more than what is required.

Laws of Jurisprudence

Law: To wear adequate clothing that covers the Satr-e-Awrat1 and which protects one from the discomfort of the heat and cold is Fard, and to use more than that, whereby adornment is intended, and because Allah has bestowed this upon you, the aim is to show the Grace of Allah, then this is desirable. To wear good clothes on important occasions such on Jummah and on the Day of Eid is Mubah (Lawful). Such clothing should not be worn daily, as there is the possibility that it will make a person boastful and will cause one to look down on the less fortunate ones, who do not have such good clothing. Thus one should avoid this. Any clothing that is worn out of pride is disallowed. The method used to ascertain whether wearing anything is causing pride or not, is to check whether your condition (i.e. attitude) after wearing it is the same as it was before wearing it, or if it has changed. If it is the same, then wearing the clothes did not cause you any pride, and if wearing them causes a

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1. Satr-e-Awrat refers to the portions of the body that must be covered. To cover this portion of the body is Fard. For males, the Satr-e-Aurat is from below the navel to below the knees and for a female, the Satr-e-Aurat is the entire body, except the face, the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.

change in your attitude (i.e. brings about arrogance), then know that it is causing pride. Thus abstain from wearing such clothes (that cause this), as pride (Takab’bur) is an appalling quality. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: It is better to make clothes from wool, cotton or fine linen, which is in accordance with the Sunnat. Neither should they be excessively extravagant, nor should they be of very poor quality, but they should be of standard quality, just as wearing very extravagant clothing causes egotism; wearing clothing of very poor quality is also a means of exhibition, as it causes people to raise their eyes (attracts attention). People start to think that this is a Saahib-e-Kamaal1 and someone who is Taarik-e-Dunya2. It is best to wear white clothing as it has been mentioned in the Hadith. Black clothing is also fine, since Rasoolullah  wore a black Turban on his blessed head when entering Makkah on the Day of Fateh Makkah. Some kitaabs have mentioned that to wear green clothing is Sunnat. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: It is Sunnat for the length of the the extreme end of a garment to be up to halfway the shin and the maximum length of the sleeve is up to the knuckles of the fingers, and the width should be one span. [Raddul Muhtar]. Many Muslims today wear short pants (or loin cloths) instead of the full trouser. What is there to be said about it being impermissible? To have the knees exposed is Haraam. The kurta sleeves (shirts etc.) of many people are above their elbows. This too is Khilaaf-e-Sunnat, and both these types of clothing are worn in resemblance of the Christians. Wearing them is thus even more harmful.

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  1. Saahib-e-Kamaal refers to a very accomplished person.

  2. Taarik-e-Dunya refers to one who has left the worldly life to strive for the sake of Allah.

May Allah allow the Muslims to see the reality, so that they may abstain from emulating the unbelievers, and abstain from their ways and styles. The command which Hazrat Ameer-ul-Mo’mineen Farooq-e-A’zam ؓ sent to his armed forces, amongst whom, most were Sahaba-e-Kiraam should be kept in mind by the Muslims and

we should try to act upon this. The command was ْ ﺟﺎﻋ' 'ﻻﺍ ى,ذ و

ْ ﺎ ﻳ,

‘Abstain from the appearance of the Westerners’ (i.e. do not make your ways and style like theirs).

Law: Silk clothing is forbidden for men. Even if there is another piece of fabric (clothing) between the (silk) clothing and the body, it is Haraam in both conditions. It is Haraam to wear pure silk clothing even during war.

However, if the warp1 is cotton and the woof2 is silk, then its use during war is permissible and if the warp is silk and the woof is cotton, then it is permissible for every person to use at every instance. Both a Muslim soldier and a non-Mujaahid may wear it.

To wear such clothing during war, where the woof is silk, is only permissible when the clothing is thick. If it is thin, then it is impermissible, since the benefit that was to be derived from it, would not be attained in this case. [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: If the warp is silk and the woof is cotton, but the garment has been made in such a manner that only the silk is visible (i.e. it looks like a complete silk garment), then to wear it is Makruh. [Alamgiri]

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  1. Warp refers to the threads that run vertically in a woven fabric crossed at right angles to the woof.

  2. Woof refers to the threads that run horizontally in a woven fabric at right angles to the warp.

There are also certain types of fluffy velvet fabrics that are made from silk. The same rule applies to wearing these. Hats and waist- coats etc. made form this should not be worn.

Law: It is disallowed to sit or sleep on silk bedding. To use it as a pillow is also disallowed, even though compared to this, wearing it is more wrongful. [Alamgiri]. Durr-e-Mukhtar has mentioned this to be contrary to what is well-known, and that which is evident is that it is permissible.

Tussore1 is the name of a type of silk. Fabric from Bhagalpur is usually called tussore. It is a very thick (coarse) silk. The ruling regarding this is the same as that of fine silk. Kashi Silk2 and Cheena Silk3 are actually both silks. The ruling regarding wearing these is the same. The sun and ram baas4 are both fabrics which appear to be silk. Even though wearing these fabrics is not in the same ruling as wearing silk, but one should refrain from wearing them, especially the Ulama as it will give people the opportunity of being suspicious or it could give others the excuse to wear silk clothing. Nowadays, a new silk has become common and is known Kela Silk5. It is not silk but it is actually the bark of a tree that is turned into threads and it is very easy to identify as silk. There is no objection to wearing this.

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  1. Tussore is a strong coarse brownish Indian silk obtained from the Cocoons of an oriental saturniid silk worm, antheraea paphia.

  2. Kashi Silk is type of silk common in Banaras, India.

  3. Cheena Silk is actually China Silk, which is regarded as one of the best silk fabrics.

  4. Sun and rambaas are types of fabric and are commonly known by the said names in India.

  5. Kela silk is a natural fibre obtained from plants. It is actually a recycled Banana Silk Fibre. This is a plant fibre produced from the outer leaves of a Banana Tree.

Law: To cover your self with a silk quilt is also not permissible, as it also falls within the category of wearing (i.e. attire). It is Makruh to hang silk curtains on the doorways (entrances of houses or rooms etc.). It is not regarded as being not impermissible if a person who sells fabric threw (i.e. draped) a silk fabric over his shoulders, like hawkers usually do, as this is not regarded as wearing it. However, if there is a silk robe or kurta and one puts his hands into its sleeves, then even if his aim is to sell it, it is disallowed. [Alamgiri]

Law: It is permissible for women to wear silk, even though it is pure silk with no mixture of cotton at all. [Wide-ranging Books]

Law: Silk brocades equivalent to four fingers in width on clothing for males is permissible. More than this is impermissible.

This means that it must be four fingers in width. The length is not counted. Similarly, if the edge of a garment (or fabric) is made from silk, just as the edges of certain turbans, shawls and waistcloths are made, then in this case, the ruling regarding them is also the same; meaning that if the edge (border) is up to four fingers in width, it is permissible, otherwise it is not permissible. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]. In other words, this is if the embellishment of its border is also made from silk, and if the embellishment is made from cotton, then even if it is more than four fingers in width is permissible. If the hem (fringe) of the turban or shawl is made from silk, then this fringe too must not exceed four fingers in width because it is not permissible for the woof to be of silk.

Law: If there is silk work on the edge of the sleeves, collar or the Daaman (i.e. the extreme end or skirt of a garment), then this too should only be up to four fingers in width. If the tie-together (i.e. belt) of the robe, or waistcoat is made from silk, then up to four fingers in width is permissible and silk buttons are also permissible.

Even the crest of a topi (hat) of four fingers in width is permissible. The part of the trouser through which the trouser string runs is also permissible (in silk) if it is up to four fingers in width. A design of a paan (betel leaf), or a mango like design on the shoulder or back of a Jubbah, or an Achkan (long buttoned coat) is also permissible, if it is up to four fingers wide (in silk). [Raddul Muhtar]. This ruling is only when the paan (design) etc. is decorated in such a way that the fabric can not be seen. If it is not decorated, then even if it is more than four fingers in width, it is permissible.

Law: If a patch from a silk fabric was sewn onto any other fabric, then if this patch is up to four fingers in width, it is permissible, and if it is more than that, it is impermissible. If silk was filled into a fabric just as wool is filled (into a fabric), but the outer fold and the lining are both cotton fabric, then to wear it is permissible and if either the outer fold or the lining is silk, then it is impermissible. In the same way, the silk lining of a topi (hat) is also impermissible and a silk border of up to four fingers in width is permissible. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If lace was attached to a topi (hat), or if a brocade or light brocade lace was attached to a turban and it is less than four fingers in width, it is permissible, otherwise it is not.

Law: If there is silk work on different parts (of a garment etc.), it will not be gathered. Meaning, if it is not more than four fingers in width at one place, but if it is gathered (i.e. added up) it will exceed it. This is not regarded as being impermissible. Thus, in the embellishment of a garment if there are silk stripes on different parts, it is permissible, as long as no single stripe is more than four fingers in width. The same ruling is regarding floral patterns and embellishments. It should not be more than four fingers in width at

one particular place and if the design of a flower etc. or any other design was made in such a way that only silk can be seen, which is known as embellishment, and where the fabric is not seen at all. Then such work (needlework) cannot be regarded as being in different places (miscellaneous). If this type of silk or Zari work is on a topi, Achkan or waistcoat or on any other garment and it exceeds four fingers in width, then it is impermissible. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: For the stripes not to exceed four fingers in width is only necessary when the stripes are in the woof and if it is in the warp and the woof is cotton, then it is also permissible in the circumstance when it is more than four fingers in width.

Law: If a fabric has been made in a manner whereby one thread is cotton and the other is silk but when looking at it, it appears to be made purely from silk. In other words, this is in the case were the cotton is not visible, then this is not permissible. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: In regards to making clothes from gold and silver just as gold and silver wires are woven into Banarasi fabrics and just as Zari1 is used in Kin cob or brocades and small-perforated beads. Similar to how the edges of the Banarasi turbans and the lower section of both ends are made from Zari. The ruling regarding these is that if it exceeds four fingers in width at any one place it is impermissible. Otherwise, it is permissible, but in the kin cob and in the (small- perforated beads), since the warp and the woof are both silk, so even if the Zari is less than four fingers in width, then too, it is impermissible.

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1. Zari is a fabric woven with thin gold and silver wires (threads).

However, if the fabric was a cotton fabric or if the warp was silk and the woof was cotton and zari was woven into it, then it would have been regarded as being permissible, if it were up to four fingers in width. Such as, if the turban is a cotton fabric and zari was woven into it, the same ruling applies to it, that it is impermissible if it exceeds four fingers in width at one place. This ruling is for males. However, it is permissible for females to wear silk, gold and silver. There is no specification of the four fingers in width ruling for them. Similarly, use of brocades and light brocade lace, no matter how wide it may be is permissible.

The distinction between something being an embellishment or not is also specific for males. It is absolutely permissible for females. [Deduced from Raddul Muhtar]

Law: The ruling which applies to the weaving of Zari is the same ruling which applies to its ornamentation (trimmings). Some people still wear zari topis (hats) nowadays. If the fabric is visible between the ornamentation, because it is not fully four fingers in width at one place, it is permissible, but if it is embellished completely (Mughar’raq), meaning it is full of (zari) work, then more than four fingers in width is not permissible. Similarly, if the fabric in the brocade is completely concealed and it exceeds four fingers in width at one place, it will be impermissible, otherwise it is permissible.

Law: If the waist belt is made from silk, then it is not permissible, and if it is made from a cotton fabric and has silk stripes on it, which is up to four fingers in width, then it is permissible. [Alamgiri]

Law: (To use) a belt made from gold or silver thread is impermissible. Some wealthy people make such belts for their security guards and orderlies. They should refrain from this.

Law: The use of silk mosquito nets is also permissible for males, as it does not fall within the category of attire (i.e. it is not worn). [Durr-e- Mukhtar]

Law: To sew a Taweez (Holy amulet) in a silk fabric and to hang it on the neck or to tie it on the arm is impermissible, as it falls within the category of something that is being worn. Similarly, to place it (i.e. a taweez) in gold and silver and then wear it is also impermissible, and if the taweez is engraved in gold and silver, then this is even more impermissible.

Law: Even if a silk topi (hat) is worn under the turban, it is still impermissible. Similarly, a zari topi is also impermissible, even if it is worn under the turban. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar].

The gold caps (headgear) worn by the Afghanis, Sarhadis and Punjabis under their turbans, and is completely embellished, and its design work is more than four fingers in width, is impermissible. However, if it is less than four fingers in width, then it is permissible.

Law: The use of a silk trouser string is disallowed. If a Tasbeeh has been made on a silk string, then to place it on the neck is not allowed. Similarly, if a watch string is made from silk, then to place it around the neck or to put a silk chain (i.e. chord) in a button and hang it, is also disallowed. It is also not allowed to tie a silk string or band on the wrist. In regards to all these items, the four fingers in width rule will not be considered, as all of these are made from pure silk. To wear a watch around the neck by attaching a gold or silver chain to it, or to attach it (i.e. a gold or silver chain) to buttons or to tie it on the wrist is not allowed. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: The same rule applies to chains (bands) made from other metals such as copper, brass and iron etc. It is also impermissible to wear these metals, and if these items are not hung or not tied on the wrist etc. but they are simply kept in the pocket, then it is not impermissible. The prohibition is related to wearing it, so keeping it in the pocket is not disallowed.

Law: If the Juzdaan (case or covering) for the Qur’an-e-Majeed is made from an impermissible fabric (i.e. from a fabric which is impermissible to wear), then to keep the Qur’an-e-Majeed in it, is permissible, but to put a band on it and then hang it around the neck is impermissible. In other words, this prohibition is only when the Juzdaan is made from silk or zari. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: To keep money in a silk purse is not disallowed. However, to hang it on the neck is impermissible. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: To hang a silk pouch on the neck is disallowed but to keep betel-nut and tobacco in it and eat from it whilst the pouch is kept in the pocket is not disallowed, to wear it is impermissible and its absolute usage is not disallowed. The use of a zari pouch is absolutely disallowed, as the use of gold and silver is disallowed Mutlaqan (absolutely). Even to eat betel-nut and tobacco from it is disallowed.

Law: If during phlebotomy1, a Phlebotomist, ties a bandage (strap), so that the veins (blood vessels) may become noticeable, then if this bandage is made from silk, it is impermissible for it to be tied for men. [Alamgiri]

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1. Phlebotomy may refer to venipuncture, which is the practice of collecting blood samples. However, here it refers to blood letting which is an ancient medical practice.

Law: To (perform) Namaaz on a silk Musal’la (Prayer Mat) is not Haraam. [Raddul Muhtar]. However, to lead Namaaz on it (i.e. as Imam) is not advisable.

Law: To decorate a house with silk, gold or silver; such as, to drape the walls and doors with silk curtains, and to display gold and silver dishware (crockery) and ornaments, with the sole objective of adornment is objectionable (i.e. it is not recommended), and if one does this out of pride and boastfulness, then it is impermissible. [Raddul Muhtar]. Probably the reason for it being not recommended is because even though in the beginning, such an act is not done out of pride, but it eventually leads to pride.

Law: The Fuqaha (Jurists) and Ulama should dress in a manner by which they are recognised, so that the people may benefit from them and so that the significance of knowledge may be impressed upon the minds of the people. [Raddul Muhtar]. If his objective is to show his own personal individuality and distinctiveness, then this is Mazmum (contemptible).

Law: Some people place a piece of cloth (i.e. a napkin) on their knees whilst eating, so that if any gravy (or curry etc.) spills, then it would not soil the clothing. If the napkin which is placed on the knees (i.e. on the lap) is silk, then its use is impermissible. To use a silk shawl (handkerchief) to clean the nose etc. or to wipe the hands and face etc. after wudu is permissible. This is a long as it is used for the purpose of wiping and it is not just used as a shawl (i.e. worn or thrown over the shoulder or around the neck etc.), and the objective of wearing it should also not be Takab’bur (pride). [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: To use gold or silver buttons in a Kurta or robe is permissible, just as the use of cloth buttons made from silk are also permissible. In other words, this is on condition that the buttons do not have

chains attached to them. If there are chains attached to the buttons, then to use them is not permissible, because chains fall within the category of jewellery and the use of jewellery for males is impermissible.

Law: To wear a black silk veil over the face due to an eye infection (conjunctivitis) is permissible as this is regarded as a circumstance where there is an Uzr (valid excuse). [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: Nowadays, there are colourful spectacles which are being sold. They are worn when it is very sunny or in brightness (i.e. sunglasses). With the availability of such glasses, there is no need for the use of silk.

Law: It is also Haraam to dress boys who have not as yet reached puberty in silk garments and the sin for this is on the person responsible for dressing them in it. [Alamgiri]

Law: To wear clothing dyed in safflower or saffron dyes is disallowed for males. If it is a dark colour, that is becoming red or it is a light colour that became yellowish, then the ruling regarding both is the same. Both these colours are permissible for females. With the exception of these two (specific kinds of dyes/colours), all other types of colours; apricot yellow, reddish, light green, yellow, champak coloured (golden) and orange etc. are also allowed for males. Even though, it is better that they (males) should not use red or very brightly coloured clothing. Colours which display femininity should not be worn by men at all. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

This prohibition is not because of a colour, but it is because it shows similarity to females and this is the reason for its prohibition. Thus, if this basis is not present, then there will not be any prohibition as

well. An example of this is that there are certain types of dyes (colours) which are fine to dye the turban with, but if a kurta or trouser has to be dyed in the very same colour, or if a shawl is dyed with that colour and then worn, it displays femininity. (In such a case), the (dying) of the turban will be regarded as permissible and the (dying) of the other garments (in such feminine) colours will be regarded as being Makruh.

Law: It is impermissible for one in whose home there has been a funeral, to wear black clothing as a sign of mourning. [Alamgiri]

Law: To wear black bans (straps etc.) are also impermissible as firstly it is something which demonstrates Sawg (mourning) and secondly because it is the way of the Christians. During the days of Muhar’ram, i.e. from the 1st of Muhar’ram right up to the 12th of Muhar’ram, it is best to abstain from wearing three colours: Black, as this is the manner of the raafdis (shia); and green as this is the manner of the Mubtada’een, i.e. words those who are involved in taazias; and Red, as this is the manner of the kharijis, as they wear red to show happiness. [Ref: A’la Hazrat Qibla]

Law: To wear woollen and fur clothing is the Sunnat of the Ambia-e- Kiraam مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ﻢ ﻴﻠﻋ. The first person to wear this type of clothing was Hazrat Sulaiman مﻼﺴﻟﺍو ةﻼﺼﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ. It has been mentioned in the Hadith, ‘Wear woollen clothing and brighten your hearts, for they are drab (i.e. dull) in this world and (Light) in the Hereafter. [Alamgiri]

The Awliyah-e-Kaamileen (Saintly personalities) and the Buzurgaan- e-Deen (Pious predecessors) wore Suf, in other words woollen clothing, and one of the reasons for them being called Sufis is because they wore Suf, i.e. woollen clothing. Even though they would wear small black blankets on their bodies but their hearts

were the Treasure Chests of the Light of Allah and Chambers of Infinite Secrets. However, in this present time, we also have very expensive woollen wear which are counted as garments of pride. Where is it possible for the poor and the less-fortunate to have such clothing! The wealthy and the influential are the ones who are able to afford them. Probably the objective mentioned by the Fuqaha and in the Hadith will not be fulfilled by wearing these types of clothing, but this will be fulfilled by wearing a simple blanket which does not have any (materialistic) significance.

Law: It is Sunnat to wear a full trouser, as this covers the body thoroughly. [Alamgiri]

Law: This has been regarded as being Sunnat in the sense that

Huzoor  liked it and the Sahaba-e-Kiraam ﻢ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر wore it.

Huzoor  himself, used to wear a Tahband (Waistcloth). Wearing of the trouser is not proven from The Holy Prophet .

Law: For males to wear such trousers that the rear portion of the trouser leg falls on the back of the foot is Makruh. To make ‘Asbaal’,

i.e. to wear the Kurta, Jubbah, Trouser and Waistcloth so low that the ankles are (completely) hidden is disallowed. These garments should be worn from between half the shin up to the ankle, i.e. the ankles should not be completely hidden. [Alamgiri]

However, to wear the trouser or Waistcloth very high nowadays, is the manner and style of the wahabis. Thus, we should not wear the trouser so high that the person who sees you mistakes you for being a Wahabi. Some people nowadays even wear the trousers very low, that not just the ankles, but the heels are even completely hidden.

This has been strictly prohibited in the Hadith, to the level where it has been mentioned, that which is below the ankles is in the fire of hell. Then, there are those, who wear the trousers so high that even the knees are visible, this type of trouser is known as boxers (i.e. short pants). This has been adopted from the Christians. Some where it so high that the knees are exposed and the ones who wear it long, wear it so long that the ankles are hidden!

They do not leave the extreme ways and follow that which is the Sunnah way. Some people wear tight trousers that are crumpled at the ends. Even in these, the ankles are concealed and the actual figure of the body is visible. Especially females should not wear these crumpled trousers. The trousers which are worn by females should be loose and loose-fitting and flowing and their pants should be worn longer, so that the foot is hidden. For them, the greater portion of the foot that is hidden, the better.

Law: To wear thick clothing and to patch ones clothing when it becomes old, is the Islamic Manner. [Alamgiri]

It has been mentioned in the Hadith that until you do not wear your clothing after patching them, do not regard them as being old. We should also not wear such thin clothing, through which the colour of the body is visible, especially the waistcloth, because if this is very thin, then there will be no Satr-e-Aurat (i.e. the parts of the body that are Fard to be concealed will not be concealed).

Another catastrophic practice in this time is that waistcloths are made from Saaris. By doing this, the parts of the body that need to be concealed are not concealed at all, i.e. there is no Satr-e-Awrat at all. Some people even perform their Namaaz whilst wearing this.

The Namaaz of such people is not valid as Satr-e-Awrat is Fard in Namaaz. Some people tie the Dhoti (Hindu traditional dress) instead of wearing a trouser or waistcloth.

To tie the dhoti is the manner of the Hindus and by wearing this, the requirement of Satr-e-Awrat is not fulfilled. (When wearing a dhoti), the hindmost part of the thigh becomes exposed and visible when walking.

Law: ‘Sudal’ here means to place a piece of cloth (sheet) on the head or shoulders (i.e. like a shawl etc.) and to let the ends hang when reading Namaaz. This is Makruh. The explanation regarding this has already gone by.

Now, regarding whether it is Makruh out of Namaaz as well, then the explanation regarding this is that if one is wearing a Kurta, a trouser or a waistcloth and the sheet has been draped over the head or shoulders, then it is not Makruh, but if one is not wearing a Kurta (upper garment), then Sudal is Makruh. [Alamgiri]

Law: To wear fur coats is permissible. The Buzurgaan-e-Deen, the Ulama and the Masha’ikh have worn it. That animal which is not Halaal, but it was made Zibah (slaughtered) or its hide has been tanned (Dabaagahat), then its fur (or leather) can also be used and a topi (hat) made from it can also be worn.

An example of this is the fur of a fox or a Sable. This is an animal which resembles a cat and leather (fur) coats are made from it. Similar to this, is the fur of the Ermine or Stoat. This is an animal that resembles the Bandicoot. [Alamgiri]

Law: There is also no objection to wearing coats made from the skin of wild animals, such as lions and cheetahs etc. It may be worn and Namaaz can also be read wearing it. [Alamgiri]. Even though, it is Afdal (much better) to avoid it. It has been prohibited in the Hadith, to sit on a Cheetah skin.

Law: To keep a handkerchief (Shawl or face cloth etc.) to clean the nose and wipe the face or to wipe the hands after Wudu is permissible. Similarly to keep it for wiping perspiration is permissible and if it is kept out of pride, then it is disallowed. [Alamgiri]

Chapter 7

Etiquettes of Wearing The Amaama (Turban)

To tie (wear) the Amaama (Turban) is Sunnat, especially during Namaaz, since the reward for the Namaaz that is read whilst wearing a turban is much more. A few Hadith have already been presented in the last section regarding the turban.

Law: When one ties a turban, then the shimla (tail) should hang on the back, between both shoulders. There is a difference of opinion regarding the length of the shimla. However, the maximum length should be such, that when one sits, it is not pressed (under you). [Alamgiri]

Some people do not hang a shimla at all. This is contrary to the Sunnat. There are some who bring it to the top and then tuck it into the turban. This too should not be done, especially in the condition of Namaaz, as it would be Makruh.

Law: When one wishes specifically to re-tie the turban, then it should not be removed and thrown onto the ground, but it should be unwrapped in the manner in which it was tied. [Alamgiri]

Law: Wearing a topi (hat) is proven from Huzoor  . [Alamgiri]

(Even though it is proven that Rasoolullah  wore a topi) but Huzoor مﻼﺴﻟﺍو ةﻼﺼﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ also used to wear an Amaama (Turban). In other words, under the turban, he used to wear a topi, and He  said that the difference between unbelievers and us is the tying of the turban on a topi. In other words, we keep both these things and they only tie the turban. They do not wear a topi under their turbans. Hence, even when the kufaar here wear the turban, they do not wear a topi underneath it. Some have explained this Hadith to mean that wearing only the topi is the manner of the mushrikeen (polytheists), but this assertion is incorrect, because even the mushrikeen of

Arabia used to tie turbans. It is clearly mentioned in Mirkaat, the annotation of Mishkaat that the small size turban of Huzoor  was of seven hands in length and the large size turban was of twelve hands in length. In short, the turban should be kept according to this Sunnat (in length). It should not exceed this in length. Some people wear huge (i.e. long) turbans. This should not be done as it is contrary to the Sunnat. In Maarwar (a place in India), many people there tie turbans that are not very wide, but are forty and fifty yards in length. Muslims should not tie turbans like these.

Miscellaneous Laws

It is permissible to place a Ghilaaf (Covering – i.e. also known as Chaadar) on the Mazaaraat-e-Tayyiba of the Buzurgaan-e-Deen, Awliyah-e-Kaamileen and the pious persons, if this is done so that the honour of the Saahib-e-Mazaar (The Personality who is resting there) may be inspired onto the hearts of the general public, and so that they may attain their blessings. [Raddul Muhtar]

As a reminder for certain things, some people tie knots in their handkerchiefs or on their drawer strings, or they (sometimes) tie a piece of cotton on their finger etc. for the same purpose. This is permissible. However, to tie a string (cotton) without any reason is Makruh. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: To hang a Taweez on the neck is permissible, for as long as it is a permissible Taweez. In other words, it has been made from verses of the Qur’an, Names of Allah and Duas. Some Hadith have prohibited the use of Taweez. This prohibition is regarding such Taweez which are made up of impermissible words, such as those which were made in the ‘Days of Ignorance’ (Zamaana-e-Jaahiliyat). Similarly, to write Taweezaat (i.e. Plural of Taweez), Verses of the Holy Qur’an, Ahadith and other Duas (benedictions) on a plate (or

small bowl) and to give this to a sick person with the intention of him attaining Shifa (cure), is also permissible. Men in state of impurity (Junub) and a female who is menstruating and one who is experiencing Lochia (i.e. post natal vaginal bleeding) can also wear a Taweez on the neck and tie it on the arm, for as long as it is covered (in a cloth etc.). [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If something is written on bedding or on a Musal’la (Prayer Mat), then to use it is impermissible, (even) if this text has been imprinted or embroidered on it, or if it has been written with ink. The same rule applies even if the alphabets are written individually, as individual alphabets (Huroof-e-Mufradah) need to be respected as well. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: Most eating cloths (table cloths) have inscriptions on them. Such eating cloths should be avoided, and we should not have our meals on it. Some people have poetic stanzas (Ash’aar) written on their pillows. Even these should not be used.

Law: Some farmers wrap fabric on poles and place them in their fields. Their aim is to protect the field from the evil eye (Nazr-e- Bud), because (by doing this) those passing by will first look at that cloth wrapped on the pole and only thereafter, will their eyes fall upon the crop and in this way, no Nazr will fall upon the crop. To do this is not impermissible as infliction by the evil eye is a fact. It has been verified from the Hadith and thus cannot be rejected. It is mentioned in the Hadith that when you look at something of your own or something belonging to your fellow Muslim brother and you fancy it, then you should make Dua for Barkat by saying these words,

,ْ , ﻓ ≈ْ ,رﺎ'ﺑ ﻢ' ,a

' ْ ,ﻘ, ﻟﺎﺨ' ﻟْ ﺍ ﻦ'''

≈' ر' ﺎﺒ'

or you could say this ‘Allah grant you

abundant blessings’. Saying this will not allow any Nazr to befall you.

[Raddul Muhtar]

Chapter 8

Etiquettes Of Wearing Shoes

Hadith 1: It is reported in Sahih Muslim from Jaabir ؓ. He says he heard Rasoolullah  saying, ‘Wear shoes as much as you can, for as long as a person is wearing shoes, it is as if he is on (a mode of transport)’, in other words he does not become exhausted.’

Hadith 2: It is in Sahih Bukhari from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤtﻨﻋ u1ﺎﻌJ ﷲﺍ u""ر who says, ‘I saw Rasoolullah  wear a Naalain (Sacred Footwear) which had no fur (covering) on it’.

Hadith 3: It is in Sahih Bukhari from Anas ؓ that there were two hairs in the Naalain of Rasoolullah , in other words, there were two laces (straps) between the mubaarak toes.

Hadith 4: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said that ‘when wearing shoes, first wear the one on the right foot and when removing them, then first remove the one on the left foot, so that the right is first in being put on, and last in being removed.’

Hadith 5: In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Do not walk whilst only wearing one shoe. Either remove both or wear both’.

Hadith 6: In Sahih Muslim it is reported from Jaabir ؓthat Rasoolullah  said, ‘If the laces (straps) of your shoes break, you should not walk whilst only wearing one shoe, but you should repair the strap, and do not walk whilst wearing only one Mauzah (sock)’.

Hadith 7: Tirmizi reported from Jaabir and Ibn Majah reported from Abu Hurairah ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  forbade the wearing of shoes whilst standing (i.e. to put them on whilst standing). This ruling is regarding those shoes which take time to

wear whilst standing (and) those which need the straps to be tied. In the same way the boots (this refers to the present day shoes) should also be worn whilst sitting, because even in these shoes, the laces have to be tied, and to tie them whilst standing is difficult. There is no harm in standing whilst putting on shoes which are not of this type; such as, the Saleem Shahi1 or the pumps2, or the type of sandal in which there is no need to tie a strap.

Hadith 8: Tirmizi reported from Hazrat A’isha

ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر

that

Rasoolullah  sometimes walked with just one Naalain. This was either to explain permissibility, or it was when he just walked one or two steps, such as to open the Door of the Hujra (Sacred Chamber).

Hadith 9: Abu Dawud reported from Ibn Abi Maleeka that someone mentioned to Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that a woman wore shoes (which resembled that of men). She (Hazrat A’isha) said that, ‘Rasoolullah  cursed women who resembled men’. In other words, women should not wear shoes that are like that of men. Actually this refers to all things in which men and women have distinctiveness to one another. There is prohibition for each one of them to adopt the style of the other. Neither should men adopt the style of the women, and nor should the women adopt the style of the men.

Hadith 10: Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Abdullah ibn Buraidah ؓ that someone had queried from Fudaala bin Ubaid ؓ saying, ‘why is it that I notice your hair scattered apart?’ He said that ‘Rasoolullah  used to prohibit us from Irfa, i.e. from excessively adorning ourselves’. He (then) said, ‘Why is it that I notice you bare feet?’ He said that ‘Rasoolullah  commanded us to occasionally remain bare feet’.

image

  1. Saleem Shahi: These are slip on embroidered shoes with a painted toe, common to Ind-o- Pak.

  2. Pumps: These are closed slip-on shoes initially famous in India and now worn world-wide.

Law: To wear leather (fur hide) shoes are permissible, and sometimes Huzoor  even wore such types of Naalain. To wear shoes sewn with iron nails (tacks) is also permissible, and in this current time, many shoes are made in the manner, where they are sewn with tacks (i.e. staples etc.). [Alamgiri]

Chapter 9

Rings And Jewellery

Hadith 1: In Sahih Muslim it is reported fromAnas ؓ that when Rasoolullah  intended to have letters written to Kasra, Qaisar and Najashi, someone mentioned that they do not accept letters without a seal (i.e. a royal stamp) on them. Nabi  then had a silver ring

made on which was engraved ﷲﺍ لﻮﺳر ﺪﻤﺤﻣ ‘Muhammadur Rasoolullah’.

It is mentioned in the narration of Imam Bukhari that this was engraved in three lines. On the first line was ﺪﻤﺤﻣ on the second line was لﻮﺳر and on the third line was the Name ﷲﺍ

Hadith 2: It is reported in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  had a ring made from gold.I In one narration it has been mentioned that he wore it on the right hand and then threw it away and had a silver ring made, which had ﷲﺍ لﻮﺳر ﺪﻤﺤﻣ engraved on it.

He  said, ‘No person should engrave his ring with an engraving that is similar to that of my ring. Huzoor  wore his ring, with the gemstone would face his palm’.

Hadith 3: It is in Sahih Bukhari from Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah’s 

ring was made from silver and it also had a gemstone on it.

Hadith 4: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah  wore a silver ring on his right hand and its stone was of Abyssinian origin, and it used to be worn facing his palm.

Hadith 5: There is a narration of Muslim from Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah’s  ring was on this finger. In other words, it was on the little finger of the left hand.

Hadith 6: It is in Sahih Muslim from Hazrat Ali ؓ that Rasoolullah

 forbade me from wearing the ring on this finger or this finger. In other words, he forbade him from wearing it on the middle finger or the Kalima (index) finger.

Hadith 7: Ibn Majah reported from Abdullah ibn Ja’far ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر and Abu Dawud and Nasa’i reported from Hazrat Ali ؓ that Rasoolullah  used to wear his ring on the right hand and Abu Dawud reported from ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that He  used to wear it on the left hand. It can be deduced from both these Hadith that He

 would sometimes wear it on the right hand and sometimes on the left hand, but Baihaqi has mentioned that wearing the ring on the right hand is inapplicable.

Hadith 8: Abu Dawud and Nasa’i have reported on the authority of Hazrat Ali ؓ that Rasoolullah  held silk in his right hand and gold in his left hand and then said, ‘Both of these are Haraam (totally forbidden) for the men of my Ummat.’

Hadith 9: It is in Sahih Muslim from Hazrat Ali ؓ that Rasoolullah

1

 prohibited the use of Qassi , fabric dyed in safflower, gold rings, and reciting the Qur’an-e-Majeed whilst in Ruku.

Hadith 10: It is in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Abdullah ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  saw a gold ring on the hand of a person, so he removed it and threw it away and said, ‘Does anyone hold a red hot coal in his hand?’ After Huzoor  left, someone mentioned to the person that he should pick up his ring and put it to some other use. He said, ‘I swear in Allah’s Name! I will never take that, which Rasoolullah  threw away’.

image

1. Qassi: This is a type of silk fabric.

Hadith 11: Abu Dawud and Nasa’i have reported from Mu’awiyah

ؓ that Rasoolullah  disallowed (us from) sitting on a cheetah skin, and from wearing gold unless it is crushed into very little particles.

In other words if very fine gold particles are attached to clothing, it is not disallowed.

Hadith 12: Imam Maalik ..ﻴﻠﻋ ﷲﺍ ﺔﻤﺣر says in Muwatta, ‘I regard it as being bad (i.e. improper) to allow little boys to wear gold, as the Hadith wherein Rasoolullah  forbade the wearing of gold rings has reached me. Thus, it is bad (not acceptable) for men, for both the adults and the younger ones’.

Hadith 13: Tirmizi, Abu Dawud and Nasa’i have reported on the authority of Buraidah ؓ that a person was wearing a brass ring.

Huzoor  asked, ‘Why is it that the odour of idols is emanating from you?’ He threw the ring away and then returned wearing an iron ring. He  asked, ‘Why is it that you are wearing the jewellery of the Dwellers of Hell (Jahannamis)?’ He then threw away that (ring) and enquired, ‘Ya Rasoolullah!  from what should I have a ring made?’ He  said, ‘Make it from silver and do not let it reach a full Mithqaal1. It is in the narration of Tirmizi that after removing the iron ring, he wore a ring made from gold and returned in the Holy Presence of Rasoolullah  so Huzoor  asked, ‘Why do I see you wearing the jewellery of the occupants of hell?’ In other words, the Ahl-e-Jannat2 will use gold in Jannat (and not on in this world).

image

  1. In other words, it should weigh less than 1 Mithqaal. A Mithqaal is a unit of mass which is equal to four and a half mashas. This is approximately 4.7 grams. Some say it is equal to approximately 4.25 grams.

  2. Ahl-e-Jannat refers to those who will enter Holy Paradise and live therein.

Hadith 14: Abu Dawud and Nasa’i reported from Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ؓ that Rasoolullah  said ten things to be bad: (1) For men to use the yellowish colour, in other words Khulooq1. (2) To dye white hair with black dye. (3) To cause the waistcloth to trail too low. (4) Wearing of gold rings. (5) To reveal the adornment (beauty) of a woman improperly2. (6) To throw the dice (backgammon), i.e. to play dice (backgammon) and chess etc. (7) To blow and brush someone to cast away evil, except with proper words of protection. In other words, to blow and brush someone to cast away evil with impermissible words is disallowed. (8) To tie Taweez, in other words those Taweez which contain words that are contrary to the Shariah.

(9) To spill liquid in an improper place. In other words after copulation, to let out semen, as this is not permissible to do with a free woman without her permission. It could also mean that it refers to Lawatat3. (10) To harm a child, but he did not render the tenth one Haraam. In other words, to copulate with the mother of the child in the days when the child is being breastfed; if she becomes pregnant at this time, then the child will be harmed.

Hadith 15: Abdullah reported a narration on the authority of

Abdullah ibn Zubair ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ

ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر

He says, ‘A servant from our home

took the daughter of Hazrat Zubair ؓ to Hazrat Umar ؓ and she had tinkling anklets on her feet. Hazrat Umar ؓ cut them off and said, ‘I heard from Rasoolullah  that, with every tinkling anklet there is

(a) shaitaan’.’

image

  1. Khulooq is a saffron coloured fragrance.

  2. This refers to disclosing her adornment to others except her husband and those who are her Mahram.

  3. Lawatat refers to sodomy, and this is absolutely Haraam.

Hadith 16: Abu Dawud reported that a girl came before Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر wearing tinkling anklets. She said, ‘Do not bring her before me until you have not cut off the tinkling anklets, for I heard from Rasoolullah  that Angels do not enter a house in which there is ‘Jars’ (a bell) or tinkling anklets’.

Laws of Jurisprudence

The use of jewellery for men is absolutely Haraam. It is only permissible to wear one silver ring, which should be within one mithqaal in weight. It should be less than four and half mashas (approximately 4.7 grams). Even the use of a gold ring is Haraam. It is permissible for the features of the sword to be of silver. In other words, silver can be set on its sheath, handle and belt, on condition that the silver is not on the area of use. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: Men are only permitted to wear one silver ring. To wear rings from other metals is also Haraam. For example, to wear rings made from iron, brass, copper and zinc etc. are impermissible for both men and women. The only difference is that the female can also wear gold (besides silver) and a male is not permitted to use gold. It is mentioned in the Hadith Shareef that a person wearing a brass ring came before Huzoor  so He  asked, ‘Why is it that the odour of idols is emanating from you?’

He threw the ring away and then returned wearing an iron ring. He

 asked, ‘Why is it that you are wearing the jewellery of the dwellers of hell?’ He threw away that ring as well and enquired, ‘Ya Rasoolullah ! From what should I have a ring made?’ He  said, ‘Have it made from silver and do not let it reach a full Mithqaal’. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: Some Ulama have mentioned the rings of Yashb1 and Aqeeq2 to be permissible and some have permitted rings made from all types of gemstones, whereas some prohibit (rings made) from all of them. Thus the importunity of precaution is that with the exception of silver, we should avoid wearing all other types of rings, especially when the inclination of illustrious and elite personalities such as the compiler of Hidaaya, has the view of all of them being impermissible.

Law: A ring refers to the round (circular) part. This does not refer to the stone. The stone can be from any gemstone. The stones of Aqeeq, Yaaqoot3, Zamur’rad4, and Feroza5 etc. are all permissible to use (on a ring). Since the rings made from all the above are impermissible for both males and females, manufacturing them and selling them is also regarded as being disallowed, as this is to assist in something which is illegitimate (i.e. impermissible). However, selling it is not disallowed to the level of it being disallowed to wearing it. [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If a silver covering is placed over a metal ring, whereby the metal is not visible at all, then there is no prohibition to wearing such a ring. [Alamgiri]. It is deduced from this, that it is permissible to place a copper or iron tablet inside gold jewellery and then cover it with gold plating, just as people do nowadays. The wearing of such a ring is permitted.

Law: To press a hole in a gemstone and to embed a gold pin in it is permissible. [Hidaya]

image

  1. Yashb agate jasper

  2. Aqeeq Cornelian Stone

  3. Yaaqoot refers to the Ruby)

  4. Zamur’rad is the name given to an Emerald

  5. Feroza is a Turquoise blue gemstone

Law: Wearing a ring is only Masnun (i.e. recommended) for those who require using a seal, such as a Sultan1, a Qazi2 and the Ulama3, who place their seals on Fatawa4. With the exception of them, it is not Masnun for others who do not required the use of a seal. However, to wear a ring is still permissible. [Alamgiri]

Law: The ring may be worn as one desires, either on the right or left hand, and it should be worn on the little finger. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: One may have his name engraved on a ring. Allah’s Name and the Name of Huzoor-e-Akram  may also be engraved on a ring.

The words ﷲﺍ

لﻮﺳر

ﺪﻤﺤﻣ

‘Muhammadur Rasoolullah’ should not be

engraved on a ring, as this was engraved in 3 lines on Huzoor’s  ring. On the first line was ﺪﻤﺤﻣ on the second line was لﻮﺳر and on the third line was The Majestic Name of ﷲﺍ. Huzoor  explicitly commanded that none should engrave this on his ring. The figure of

any human or animal should not be engraved on the ring stone.

[Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: A permissible ring is that which is permissible for men. In other words, it should have one gemstone. If it has more than one stone, then even though it is a silver ring, it is impermissible for a male. [Raddul Muhtar]. Similarly, for a male to wear more than one ring or to wear a Chal’la5 is also impermissible, as this is not really classified as a ring. Females may wear the Chal’la.

  1. Sultan refers to the Muslim Ruler in a Muslim State.

  2. Qazi refers to the Muslim Justice, usually referred to as the ‘Qadi’.

  3. Ulama is the plural of Aalim, which refers to the Men of Learning or Religious Leaders.

  4. Fatawa is the plural of Fatwa, which is a Religious decree or Edict.

  5. A Chal’la refers to a ring equally wide all round and without a stone.

Law: To tie loose teeth with gold wire is permissible and if someone’s nose has been severed, then he may have a golden nose made and attached. In both conditions, gold has been regarded as permissible due to necessity, as by having the teeth tied with silver wire or attaching a silver nose, would cause mouldiness. [Alamgiri]

Law: If a tooth falls, it can be tied with gold or silver wire. The teeth belonging to another person cannot be used in your mouth. [Alamgiri]

Law: To adorn boys in gold and silver jewellery is Haraam, and the one who adorns them in it is a sinner. Similarly, it is impermissible to put mehndi on the hands and feet of children without reason. A woman is allowed to apply mehndi on her own hands and feet, but if she applies it onto a boy, she will be regarded as being sinful. [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Chapter 10

Covering of Dishware & Etiquettes When Going To Bed

Hadith 1: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When the first signs of the darkness of night appear’ or He  said, ‘When evening appears, then gather the children, for the shayateen are circulating. Then when one portion of night passes, you my release them, and say ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ and close the doors, for when the doors are closed in this

manner, then shaitaan cannot open them. Say ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ and tie-up the mouths of the water-skins (jugs or water bottles etc.) and say ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ and cover the dishware. If you do not cover them, then put

something over it to block it, and put out the lamps’.

Another Hadith of Sahi Bukhari mentions: Close your dishware (i.e. cover your pots etc.) and seal the mouths of the water-skins, and press your doors closed and gather the children in the evening, for during this time the jins are circulating, and they swoop down (to carry away) and at the time of going to bed, put off the lamps (i.e. candles etc.) for sometimes the rat drags the flame with it causing the house to burn down.

It is reported in a narration of Muslim that: Conceal your dishware and tie up the mouth of the water-skin, and shut the doors and put off the lamps, for shaitaan will (then) neither open the water-skin, nor will he open the doors or the dishware (i.e. pots etc.). If you do not find anything (to cover it with), then take a stick and say ﷲﺍ ﻢﺴ (Bismillah) and merely place it like a covering.

It is also mentioned in another narration of Muslim that: There comes a night in a year, wherein affliction (pandemic etc.) descends. If any dishware is not closed or if the mouth of any water-skin is not tied (i.e. if a water bottle is not closed), then if the pandemic passes by there, it will creep into it.

Hadith 2: Imam Ahmed, Muslim and Abu Dawud have reported from Hazrat Jaabirؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When the sun sets, then until the blackness (i.e. darkness) of Esha does not start to disappear, do not release your animals and your children, for it is the time when the shayateen are circulating’.

Hadith 3: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Do not leave fires (burning) in your homes when going to bed (i.e. when sleeping)’.

Hadith 4: It is reported in Sahih Bukhari on the authority of Abu Musa Ash’ari ؓ that a house had burnt down one night in Madina. Huzoor  said, ‘This fire is your enemy. Put it out when going to sleep’.

Hadith 5: It is in Sharhus Sunnah from Jaabir ؓ that Nabi  said that, ‘when you hear the barking of dogs and the braying of donkeys at night, read ﻢﻴﺟﺮﻟﺍ نﺎﻄﻴﺸﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﷲﺎﺑ ذﻮﻋﺍ (A’oozu Bil’laahi minash shaitaanir rajeem), for they see that which you are not able to see and when the sound of footsteps stops (i.e. when people stop walking around). Then avoid coming out of the house, for Allah leaves whosoever He Wills from amongst His creation to circulate the earth at night’.

Chapter 11

The Etiquettes of Sitting, Sleeping And Walking

It is mentioned in the Qur’an-e-Majeed:

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“(Luqman said to his son): and when conversing with anyone, do not distort your cheek (face) and walk not with arrogance on the earth. Verily, Allah loves not anyone who is arrogant and boastful. And walk at a moderate pace and lower your voice. Undoubtedly, the most awful of all sounds is the braying of the donkey” [Surah 31 Verses 18-19]

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“And walk not with arrogance on the earth. Verily, neither will you ever be able to tear through the earth, nor will you reach the mountains in stature.” [Surah 17 Verse 37]

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“And the servants of The Most Compassionate are those who walk on the earth gently, and when they are addressed by the ignorant ones, then they say ‘Salaam’ (Peace). And those who spend the night prostrating and standing for their Rub (for Allah).” [Surah 25 Verses 63-64]

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“O you who Believe! When you are told to make room in gatherings, then make room. Allah will grant you room. And when you are told to rise up and stand, then rise up and stand, Allah will elevate in stature amongst you, those of you who believe and those who possess knowledge.” [Surah 58 Verse 11]

HADITH 1: In Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim it is narrated from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘It should not be such that one person should wake another person up from his place and then he himself sits there, but move aside and make some room’.

In other words, those who are seated should move aside to make room for the one who arrives later, so that he too may be able to sit, or (it means) that the person who comes in should not ask anyone to get up (from where he is sitting), but he should request him to move a little and make some room, so that he may be seated. It has also been mentioned in the narration of Bukhari that Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر used to regard it as Makruh for someone to wake up from their place

and for him to then sit at that persons place. This action of Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر was from the marvels of abstinence, that it should not be such that the person does not really wish to wake up from his place, but he merely left his place for his sake.

HADITH 2: Abu Dawud reported from Sa’eed ibn Abil Hassan. He says, ‘Abu Bukrah ؓ came to us during a presentation of testimony. A person got up from his place for him. He (however) refused to sit at that place and said that ‘Nabi  prohibited this and Huzoor  also prohibited one from wiping his hands on the clothes of such a person whom he did not clothe’. In this Hadith, even though Abu Bukrah ؓ did not ask the person to leave his place, and that person had gotten up by himself from his place, and visibly this is not a situation regarding which there is any prohibition. However, this is the marvel of caution that he did not find it appropriate to sit down even in such a situation. (In other words) even though he did not ask the person to get up, but because the person had gotten up for him, he deliberated that it should not be so that this too may be considered in the same ruling as asking someone to get up (from his place).

HADITH 3: It is in Sahih Muslim from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘The person who leaves his place after getting up, and then returns to it, then that place is rightfully his’. (In other words, this applies if he returns quickly).

HADITH 4: Abu Dawud reported from Abu Dardah ؓ who says ‘When Rasoolullah  would sit and we would sit near Huzoor  and if he would get up and leave but he wished to return, then He  would leave his Naalain Mubaarak or something else there. By this, the Sahaba-e-Kiraam knew that Huzoor  would return, and they would all remain waiting.

HADITH 5: Tirmizi and Abu Dawud reported from Abdullah ibn

Umar

ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر

that Rasoolullah  said, ‘It is not Halaal upon

anyone to cause separation between two people’. (In other words to sit between two people, except with their permission)

HADITH 6: Baihaqi narrated in Sha’bul Imaan on the authority of Waathila bin Khataab ؓ that a person presented himself before Huzoor  whilst Huzoor  was present in the Musjid. Huzoor  moved away from his place for him. He said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! There is sufficient room available’ (i.e. there was no need for Huzoor

 to move and to take any trouble). He  said, ‘It is the duty of a Muslim that when his brother looks at him, he should move for him’ (i.e. give him more room).

HADITH 7: Razeen narrated from Abu Sa’eed Khudri ؓ that Rasoolullah  would make Ihtiba1 with both his hands whilst sitting in the Musjid.

HADITH 8: Abu Dawud reported from Jaabir bin Sumrah ؓ. He says, ‘When Nabi Kareem  would complete praying his Fajr Namaaz, he would sit cross-legged until such time that the sun would rise well’.

HADITH 9: Abu Dawud reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘If a person is in the shade and the shade is drawn together, whereby he is partially in the shade and partially under the sun, then he should not sit there any longer’.

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1. Ihtiba is when a person sits with his rear on the ground, with both knees upright and he encircles his knees with both hands, holding one hand with the other hand. Sitting in this manner falls within the category of politeness and humility.

HADITH 10: Abu Dawud reported Amr bin Shuraid, who narrates from his father. He says, ‘I was sitting in a manner whereby I had placed my left hand behind my back, and I was reclining on the nape of the palm of my right hand’. Rasoolullah  passed by me and said, ‘Do you sit in the manner of those on whom the wrath of Allah is descending?’

HADITH 11: Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Jaabir bin Sumrah ؓ. He says, ‘When presenting ourselves before Nabi Kareem

, we would remain seated where the Majlis (gathering) had concluded’. In other words they would sit at the edges of the gathering and not tear (through the gathering) enter.

HADITH 12: Tabrani reported on the authority of Abu Musa Ash’ariؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When a person visits any nation and they make room for him, (with the intention) of pleasing him, then it is on Allah, that He may grant them happiness’.

HADITH 13: Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘that there are a few such phrases, that if recited by a person thrice after the conclusion of a gathering, Allah ta’aala will wipe out his sins and which ever person recites them in a blessed gathering and in a gathering of Zikr. Then Allah will place a seal over this blessing for him, just as a person places a seal with a ring. The (phrases) are:

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HADITH 14: Haakim reported in Mustadrak on the authority of Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Those who sit at any place for a long time and then disperse without making Zikrullah (remembering Allah), and without sending Durood on Nabi Kareem

, they have caused injury. If Allah Wills, He may punish them, and if He wills, He may pardon them’.

HADITH 15: Baz’zaar reported from Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah 

said, ‘Remove your shoes when you sit. Your feet will attain comfort’.

HADITH 16: It is in Sahih Muslim from Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah

 disallowed (i.e. advised us against) keeping one foot on top of the other foot when lying down flat.

HADITH 17: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Ubaad bin Tameem. He reports from his paternal uncle that, ‘I saw Rasoolullah

 lying down in the Musjid (and) Huzoor  had one foot on the other foot’.

This is to explain permissibility and is in the condition when there is no risk of the Satr being exposed, and the first (previous) Hadith is in the condition where there is the risk of the Satr being exposed. For example, if a person is sleeping flat on the ground wearing a waistcloth and he has one leg standing upright and he lifts the other leg and places it over that leg, then there is the risk of the Satr being exposed. If he has both legs stretched outwards and keeps one foot on top of the other, then (in such a situation) there is no risk of the Satr being exposed.

HADITH 18: It is in Sharhus Sunnah from Abu Qatadah ؓ that when Rasoolullah  would disembark at his destination at night, he would rest on his right side and if he arrived at his destination just before morning, then he would keep his right hand upright and He

 would rest by keeping his head on the palm of the right hand.

HADITH 19: Tirmizi reported from Jaabir bin Sumrah ؓ that, ‘I saw Rasoolullah  resting (lying down) whilst reclining on his left side’.

HADITH 20: Tirmizi reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  saw a person sleeping flat on his stomach. He  said, ‘Allah dislikes for a person to lay down in this manner’.

HADITH 21: Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah reported from Tukhfa Ghafaari ؓ (he was from amongst the Ashaab-us-Suffa). He says that due to an ailment of the chest, I was lying on my stomach, when suddenly someone tapped me with their foot and said, ‘Allah ta’aala dislikes it when (someone) sleeps in this manner. I looked up and saw that it was Rasoolullah ’.

HADITH 22: Ibn Majah reported from Abu Zir ؓ. He says that he was lying (flat) on my stomach. Rasoolullah  passed by me and then jolted me with his foot and said, ‘O Jundub1! This is the manner in which the dwellers of hell lie down’.

It means that it is either the manner in which the kaafirs lie down or it refers to the manner in which the dwellers of hell (jahannamis) will lie down in Jahannum (Hell).

HADITH 23: Abu Dawud reported from Ali bin Shaibaan ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘None is responsible for a person who rests at night on a roof which has no barrier’ (i.e. if it does not have any wall or parapet). In other words, if he falls off the roof at night, then he is to blame for this.

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1. Jundub was the name of Hazrat Abu Zir ؓ

HADITH 24: Tirmizi reported from Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah 

disallowed sleeping on a roof which has no barrier.

HADITH 25: Abu Ya’la reported from Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘The person who sleeps after Asr and his brain becomes weak, then he has only himself to blame’.

HADITH 26: Imam Ahmed reported from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  forbade being alone. In other words, from this, that someone should sleep all alone.

HADITH 27: Sahih Bukhari and Muslim have reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘A person robed in two sheets walked arrogantly and boastfully. He was caused to sink into the earth (and) he will continue sinking until Qiyaamat’.

HADITH 28: Abu Dawud reported from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  forbade a man from walking between two women.

HADITH 29: Baihaqi narrated in Sha’bul Imaan on the authority of Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When women appear in front of you, then do not pass between them. Either pass to the right or to the left’.

Laws of Jurisprudence

Law: To make Qailullah1 is permissible, and actually Mustahab.

[Alamgiri]

Perhaps this is for those who stay up performing Namaaz at night, engrossed in Zikr-e-Ilahi2, or those who spend (lengthy periods at night) going through Kitaabs or those engrossed in studying religious literature, so that the fatigue that is felt from staying awake at night may be alleviated through Qailullah.

Law: To sleep at the start of day or to sleep between Maghrib and Esha is Makruh. In sleeping, it is Mustahab (desirable) to sleep with Tahaarat (wudu) and to sleep for a short while on the right side, by keeping the right hand under the cheek, facing the direction of the Qibla, thereafter one may sleep on the left side. When going to sleep, think about sleeping in the grave, as there, you will have to sleep all alone. With the exception of your A’maal (deeds), no one else will be with you. When going to sleep, engross yourself in the remembrance of Allah. Recite Tahleel, Tasbeeh and Tamheed3 (i.e. recite the Kalima declaring Oneness of Allah, Glorify Allah and Praise Allah), until you fall off to sleep doing this, for a person rises in the condition in which he sleeps. A person will be raised on the day of Qiyaamat in the condition in which he dies. Rise before dawn after sleeping and

on awakening, immediately remember Allah by reading

ىْ ﺬ, ﻟ ﺍ � ﺪ ﻤْ' ﻟْ 'ﺍ

ر ْ ﺸ ﻟ ﺍ , ﻴْ ﻟ' ,ﺍ و

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ﺎ'ﻧﺎﻴ' ْ ﺍ' Immediately (after reading this), make a firm

intention that you will live piously and be Allah fearing and that you will not cause trouble to anyone. [Alamgiri]

image

  1. Qailullah refers to a mid-afternoon nap.

  2. Zikr-e-Ilahi refers to the Remembrance of Allah.

  3. Tahleel, Tasbeeh and Tamheed, is to recite the third kalmia declaring the Oneness of Allah, To Glorify Allah, and to Praise Allah.

Law: There are three circumstances related to conversing after Namaaz-e-Esha:

  1. The first is pertaining to knowledgeable discussions. This is to query regarding an Islamic Ruling from someone, or to give the answer to an Islamic query or to do research or analysis regarding it. This type of discussion (conversation) is more virtuous than sleeping.

  2. The second is pertaining to narrating false stories and tales, clowning and sitting around making jokes. This is Makruh.

  3. The third is pertaining to having mutual conversations, such as between husband and wife, or to have a conversation with a guest to make him feel welcome. This is permissible. When having such conversations, then end them with the remembrance of Allah and by making Tasbeeh and Istighfar (repenting from all sins).

Law: For two men to sleep naked, covered with one sheet is not permissible, even if one is sleeping on one end of the bed and the other is on the other end of the bed. Similarly, it is also not permissible for two females to sleep naked, covered in one sheet. The prohibition regarding this has been mentioned in the Hadith.

Law: When a boy and a girl reach the age of ten, they should be made to sleep separately. In other words when a boy becomes grown up, he should not be allowed to sleep together with his mother or sister or with any other woman. He can only sleep together with his wife or with his handmaid (Baandi). Actually a boy of that age should not even be allowed to sleep together with boys of the same age or with other men as well. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: When a husband and wife sleep on one bed, then they should not allow a ten year old child to sleep with them. When a boy reaches the age of lust, then his ruling is the same as that of an adult male. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: None has the right to leave the (common) road and walk (i.e. to trespass) on the property belonging to someone else. However, if there is no road there, then he may walk on the property, until such time that the owner of the property prohibits it. One is not permitted to walk on that property (if prohibited by the owner). This rule is only pertaining to a single particular individual. However, if there are many people (walking there), then unless the owner of the property is not pleased with it, they should not walk there. If there is water on the road and the property is alongside the road, (then) in such a situation one may walk there. [Alamgiri]

The land is already cultivated at times, and it is obvious that walking there causes loss to the farmer. In such a circumstance, one should never trespass (walk there). At times the farmers even place thorns alongside the edges where there is likelihood of (people) trespassing. This is clear proof that he is prohibiting anyone from walking there, but some people do not even take heed to this. They should know that to walk there in such a condition is prohibited.

Chapter 12

Regarding Looking And Touching

Allah commands

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“Say to the Muslim men (that) they should lower their gazes and protect their private ornaments. This is of great chastity for them. Undoubtedly, Allah is well aware of all their actions. And command the Muslim Women that they should lower their gazes and protect their private ornaments. And they should not flaunt their ornamentation, except that which is by it self apparent. And they should keep their bossoms covered with their stoles and they should not reveal their beauty, but to their husbands, or to their fathers, or their husband’s fathers, or to the theirs sons, or to the son’s of their husbands, or to their brothers, or to sons of their brother’s or the sons of their sister’s, or to the women of their Deen or to their female slaves whom their hands own, or to their servants (male), on condition that they do not have lustful needs, or to such small children who have no idea of the things

related to the shame of women; And they should not strike their feet on the ground, through which their concealed beauty may be exposed. And repent, turning towards Allah, O Muslims, Altogether, in the hope of attaining salvation.” [Surah 24 Verses 30-31]

And He commands

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“O Nabi! Say to your wives and your daughters, and to the believing women, that they should spread their stoles over themselves, through this, they will be recognized and they shall not be offended. And Allah is The Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [Surah 33 Verse 59]

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    “And the elderly women retired (to their homes), who have no aspiration to marry, there is no sin upon them, that they may leave aside their outer garb, whereas they do not display their attractiveness, and it is better for them to desist from that (as well). And Allah is (All) Hearing, (All) Knowing.” [Surah 24 Verse 60]

    Hadith 1: In Sahih Muslim it is narrated from Hazrat Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘A woman appears before you in the form of shaitaan and she returns in the appearance of shaitaan. When someone looks at a woman and he finds her desirable and something transpires in his heart, then he should be intimate with his wife. This will cause that feeling to subside which transpired in the heart’.

    Hadith 2: Daarimi reported from Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Whosoever looked at a woman and he finds her desirable, he should go to his wife, for she too has the same which that woman has’.

    Hadith 3: In Sahih Muslim it is narrated from Jareer bin Abdullah

    ؓ. He says that ‘Rasoolullah  was asked regarding (what should be done) when the sight falls upon a woman without intent. Huzoor  commanded, ‘Turn your gaze away’.’

    Hadith 4: Imam Ahmed, Abu Dawud, Tirmizi and Daarimi reported from Buraidah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said to Hazrat Ali ؓ ‘Do not place the second sight after the first sight (i.e. if unexpectedly without intent, your sight falls upon a woman, then immediately look away and do not lay your sight on her for the second time), because to look once is permissible and to look again is not permissible’.

    Hadith 5: Tirmizi reported from Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘A woman is an Awrat’. In other words she is something that must be concealed. ‘When she emerges, shaitaan peeps at her’. In other words, to look at her is a shaitaani (i.e. evil) action.

    Hadith 6: Imam Ahmed reported from Abu Umaama ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘A Muslim who looks at the attractiveness of a woman for the first time (i.e. only once without intending to have done so) and then closes his eyes tightly, Allah ta’aala will afford him such an Ibaadat, by which he will attain its pleasure’.

    Hadith 7: Baihaqi reported from Hassan Basri ؓ. He says, ‘I received this information that Rasoolullah  said that ‘the curse of Allah is upon the one who looks and upon the one who was looked at’.’ In other words, this is when the one who looks, does so intentionally without a valid reason and the other person displays themselves to be looked at intentionally without a valid reason.

    Hadith 8: Ibn Majah reported from A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر. She says, ‘I never looked towards the private parts of Rasoolullah ’.

    Hadith 9: Tirmizi, Ibn Majah and Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Bahaz ibn Hakeem, who narrated from his father, who narrated from his grandfather, that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Keep your private parts protected (concealed), except from your wife and from the handmaid, of whom you are the owner’. I said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah

    ! (And) if a man is alone?’ He  said, ‘It is more precious to be modest before Allah’.

    Hadith 10: Tirmizi reported from Hazrat Umar ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When a man is alone with a woman, then the third one there is shaitaan’.

    Hadith 11: Tirmizi reported from Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Do not visit women whose husbands are away, for shaitaan flows in you like blood’. In other words, it does not take time for shaitaan to deceive you. We asked ‘and to you Ya Rasool’Allah !?’ He  said ‘and to me as well, but Allah has granted me assistance

    against him. (Either he said) He became a believer or I remain protected’. Both meanings can be derived from the words of the Hadith. (In other words, shaitaan tries to harm everyone, but he cannot harm Rasoolullah ).

    Hadith 12: In Sahih Muslim it is reported from Uqba bin Aamir ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Avoid going towards women’. A person said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! What is the ruling regarding the brother- in-law (husband’s younger brother)?’ He  said, ‘that the brother- in-law is death’. In other words to go in front of the brother-in-law is like facing death, for there is a greater risk of temptation (waywardness) in this.

    Hadith 13: Tirmizi reported from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Abstain from being naked, because there are those (Angels) with you, who do not separate from you except when you enter into the toilet and at the time when a man goes close to his wife (i.e. when he is intimate with her). Thus, be modest before them and respect them’.

    Hadith 14: Tirmizi and Abu Dawud reported from Jarhad ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Do you know not, that the thigh is ‘Awrat’? In other words, it is a part (of the body) that needs to be concealed’.

    Hadith 15: Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah reported from Hazrat Ali ؓ that Huzoor  said, ‘Do not allow the thigh to be exposed, and do not look towards the thigh of a living person or towards the thigh of a deceased person’.

    Hadith 16: In Sahih Muslim it is narrated from Abu Sa’eed ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Neither should a male look at the (Satr) private parts of another male and nor should a female look at the (Satr)

    private parts of another female. Neither should a man sleep naked under one sheet with another male and nor should a female sleep naked under one sheet with another female’.

    Hadith 17: Tirmizi, Abu Dawud and Imam Ahmed have reported from Umm-e-Salma ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that she and Hazrat Maimoona ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر were in the Holy Presence of Huzoor  when Abdullah ibn Umm-e-Maktum ؓ arrived. He  commanded both of them to go into their private chambers. She says, ‘I said Ya Rasool’Allah ! He is blind and he will thus not be able to see us’. Huzoor  said ‘Are the both of you blind as well? Will you not be able to see him?’

    Hadith 18: In Sahih Bukhari on the authority of Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘A woman should not embrace another woman and then describe her to her husband as if he was looking at her’.

    Hadith 19: It is in Sahih Muslim from Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah

     said, ‘Beware! No man should spend the night at the house of a Thay’yib woman (i.e. a divorced or widowed woman), but in the circumstance where he is to make Nikah to her, or if he is her Mahram’ (legal guardian with whom marriage is disallowed).

    Hadith 20: It is in Sahih Muslim from Abu Hurairah ؓ who says, ‘I was in the presence of Nabi Kareem  and I said that I have the intention of making Nikah (marrying) with an Ansari woman. Huzoor  said, ‘You should see her, for there is something in the eyes of the Ansaar. In other words, their eyes are slightly auburn’ (i.e. golden-brown in colour)

    Hadith 21: Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi, Ibn Majah, Nasa’i and Daarimi reported from Mughira bin Shu’ba ؓ. He says that I sent a proposal

    of Nikah to a lady. Rasoolullah  said to me, ‘Have you seen her already?’ I answered in the negative. He  said ‘You should see her, so that due to this, the probability of mutual agreement between the two of you may be greater’.

    Laws of Jurisprudence

    The Laws in this Section are in four categories:

    1. Regarding a male looking at a male

    2. Regarding a female looking at a female

    3. Regarding a female looking at a male

    4. Regarding a male looking at a female

    A male may look at any part of the body of another male except for those parts that are regarded as Satr. In other words (this refers to) those parts that must be covered. This is from below the navel up to below the knees, as it is Fard to conceal (i.e. Cover) this portion of the body. Those parts of the body which are necessary to be covered, are known as the ‘Awrat’ (i.e. that which must be concealed). If you see someone with his knees exposed, then you should prohibit (i.e. caution) him, and if you see that his thigh is exposed, then you should prohibit him sternly and if his private parts are exposed, then he should be chastised. [Alamgiri]

    Law: There is no ‘Awrat’ for a very young child. In other words, it is not Fard to conceal any parts of the child’s body. When he becomes a little older, it is necessary to cover his private parts (i.e. both the rear and front), and when he becomes even older, meaning more than ten years of age, the ruling regarding him is the same ruling which applies to one who is Baaligh1. [Raddul Muhtar]

    Law: That part of the body which one may look at can also be touched. [Hidaya]

    Law: When a boy reaches adolescence and he is not very attractive, then to look at him is based on the same ruling as looking at an adult male. If he is very attractive, then the ruling applying to him is that which applies to looking at a female. In other words, to look towards him with lust is Haraam, and if there is no lust, then it is allowed to look at him. Sitting alone with him is also permissible. When it is said that there should be no lust, it means that one should have full confidence that looking at him will not create any lustful feelings. If one has the slightest doubt of this occurring, then one should never look at him. Even the desire to kiss falls within the confines of lust. [Raddul Muhtar]

    Law: Regarding a female looking at a female, the ruling is the same as that of a male looking at a male. In other words, she cannot look at another female from below the waist up to the knees. She is allowed to look at the rest of another female’s body, on condition that there is no danger of lustful feelings. [Hidaya]

    Law: A pious women should protect herself from the sight of a (sexually) immoral female. In other words, she should not remove her stole (scarf etc.) in her presence, as such a woman will look at her and then mention to other men regarding her figure and looks etc. It is also not Halaal for a Muslim female to open her ‘Satr’ in the presence of an unbelieving female (kaafirah). [Alamgiri]

    image

    1. Baaligh refers to one who has reached the age of puberty.

    Unbelieving women come into (our) homes and (our) women are attired in a manner whereby certain parts of her ‘Satr’ are opened, just as when she is in the presence of Muslim women. It is necessary for them to abstain from this.

    In most places, the midwives are unbelievers and they assist in the delivering of babies. If Muslim midwives are available, a non-Muslim midwife should not be engaged for this purpose, as it is not permitted to expose those parts of the body in the presence of a non- Muslim female.

    Law: The ruling in regards to a female looking towards a strange man is the same ruling which is regarding a male looking at a male. This ruling is only applicable when a female knows with full confidence, that she will not have any lustful feelings by looking towards him. If there is the slightest doubt that these lustful feelings may occur, then she should never look towards him. [Alamgiri]

    Law: A female should never touch the body of a strange male if any one of them is a young person (i.e. is of marriageable age). There is a possibility of that person having lustful feelings. This rule applies even if both of them are confident that no lustful feelings will arise. [Alamgiri]

    Law: Some young women press the hands and feet of their Peers (Spiritual Guides) and some Peers even allow their female disciples to press their hands and feet, and most often, either both of them or at least one of them is within the limits of lust. To do this is impermissible and both are regarded as sinful.

    Law: Regarding a male looking at a female. There are a few circumstances pertaining to this:

    1. For a male to look at his wife or his handmaid.

    2. For male to look (glance) towards his Mahaarim1.

    3. For a male to look at a free strange woman (i.e. not a baandi).

    4. For a male to look at the handmaid of someone else.

    In the first circumstance, he may look at her from her heel to the top of her hair (pony-tail). In other words, he may look at every part of her body in both conditions, meaning with or without lustful feelings. Similarly, both these women (i.e. his wife and his handmaid) may look at every part of his body. However, it is better not to look at the private ornaments of the body as this causes Nisyaan2 and it also causes the weakness in eyesight. In this Law, the baandi3 that is being referred to is one with whom Watee4 is permissible. [Alamgiri, Raddul Muhtar, Durr-e-Mukhtar]

    Law: That handmaid with whom one cannot be sexually intimate, such as one who is a Mushrika5, or if she is a Mukaatibah6, or Mushtarika7, or if Watee is Haraam with her due to Raza’at8 or due to Musaharat9 falls within the ruling of an Ajnabiya10. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

    image

    1. Mahaarim refers to those females whom one can not marry

    2. Nisyaan refers to an illness that brings on absent-mindedness

    3. Baandi refers to a slave-girl (i.e. handmaid). It must noted that the ruling regarding slaves and slave-girls is not applicable in this era. This means that we are not allowed to enslave any person in this present time. Slavery in this era is abolished. The rules regarding them are still mentioned in books of Islamic Jurisprudence, to show distinction between slaves and free- men.

    4. Watee refers to copulation

    5. Mushrika refers to a polytheist female

      Law: He may touch the entire body of his wife and of a handmaid (who is permissible for him to copulate with) and she may touch any part of his body, to the extent where both are allowed to touch the private parts of one another. [Alamgiri]

      Law: During sexual intercourse, both of them are allowed to be completely exposed, that is if the house (room) is very small, i.e. it is of ten or five hand lengths. [Alamgiri]

      Law: When a husband and wife are on their bed, and they are not being sexually intimate, then in such a condition, their Mahaarim may enter after seeking permission. They may not enter without permission. Similarly, the servant, i.e. slave or handmaid may also enter. [Alamgiri]

      Law: If one holds the hand of the baandi and takes her into his room (private chambers) and closes the door, causing people to realise that he did this so that he may be intimate with her, then this is Makruh. Similarly, to be intimate with your wife in the presence of your co-wife (second or third wife etc.) is also Makruh. [Alamgiri]

      Law: One may look towards the head, chest, shin, shoulder, wrist, neck and feet of those who are his Mahaarim, if there is no danger of lustful feelings stirring up between either of them. To look towards the stomach, back and thigh of the Mahaarim is impermissible. [Hidaya]

      image

      Cont. from last pg…..

    6. Mukaatibah refers to a female slave who is under bond with her master to pay for her freedom in instalments

    7. Mushtarika is a slave belonging to more than one person

    8. Raza’at refers to fosterage

    9. Musaharat refers to a relationship

    10. Ajnabiya refers to a strange non-mahram female

    Similarly, to look towards their sides and knees is also impermissible.

    [Raddul Muhtar]

    To look towards their ears, neck, shoulder and face is permissible.

    [Alamgiri]

    Law: ‘Mahaarim’ refers to those females with whom Nikah is Haraam forever. This is whether it is Haraam due to Nasab1 or due to Sabab2, such as fosterage, or due to relationship. If it is Haraam due to relationship on the basis of adultery, like the causes and effects relating to an adulteress, then the ruling regarding looking towards them is also the same. [Hidaya]

    Law: One may also touch the parts of the Mahaarims body, which he is allowed to look at, on condition that there is no risk of lustful feelings stemming from it for each. A man may press the feet of his mother, but he can only press her thigh if it is covered, i.e. he may do so on her clothes. However, it is impermissible for him to touch her thigh without it being covered. [Alamgiri]

    Law: One may also kiss the feet of his mother. It has been mentioned in the Hadith: One who kissed the feet of his mother; it is as if he kissed the doorpost of Jannat. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

    Law: To travel with your Mahaarim or to be alone in privacy with her; in other words, for both to be alone in a house, where there is no one else, is permissible, on condition that there is no risk of lustful feelings stemming from this. [Alamgiri]

    image

    1. Nasab in this context refers to blood relations and lineage

    2. Sabab in the context mentioned above refers to a cause or a basis for it to be Haraam

    Law: To look towards a baandi who belongs to someone else is in the same ruling as that of the Mahaarim. The same rule applies to the Mudabirah1 and Mukaatibah. [Hidaya]

    Law: If a person wishes to purchase a Kaneez2, he may look towards her wrist, shoulders, shin and chest, as there is a necessity for him to look at her in such a circumstance. He is also allowed to touch those parts of her body, on condition that there is no risk of lustful feelings stemming from this. [Hidaya]

    Law: The ruling regarding looking towards a strange woman, is that it is permissible to look towards her face and her palms, as the need for this arises, like on occasion when one needs to testify in support of her or when opposing her, or in a case where one needs to pass a judgement (relating to her). If he does not see her, then what for, will he testify, that she has done a certain thing. When looking at her, the ruling is also the same, i.e. on condition that there is no risk of lustful feelings stemming by looking. With the exception of this, there are also other times when one has to look at them, as many women come in and out of their homes. Thus, to (totally) avoid this (glancing at them) is very difficult. Some Ulama have mentioned that it is also permissible to look towards their feet. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri]

    Law: Even though it is permissible to look at the face and palms of a strange woman, touching her is impermissible, even though there may be no risk of lustful feelings. Reason being that looking is on the

    image

    1. Mudabirah refers to female slave released by her master, whereby he declares that she should only be free after his death

    2. A Kaneez also refers to a slave-girl

    basis of necessity and due to Balwa-e-Aam1. There is no need to touch. Hence, to touch is Haraam. From this it can be deduced that to shake hands with them is impermissible.

    That is why Huzoor  would never hold the hands of females when taking Bai’at2 from them, but he used to just take the Bai’at verbally. However, if she is extremely old where the situation of lustful feelings is no more existent, then there is no objection in shaking her hands. Similarly, if a man is extremely old, and there is no risk of waywardness at all, then he too may shake hands. [Hidaya]

    Law: To look3 at a very small girl who is not Mushtihaat4 is allowed.

    [Hidaya]

    Law: If a strange woman is employed at the home of anyone as a domestic servant or to prepare rotis etc. (i.e. as a cook). Then in such an instance, it is also permissible to look towards her wrists, as she will raise her sleeves whilst working and in doing so her wrists will become visible and how will he be able to avoid this, whereas she is in his home. Similarly, to look towards her teeth etc. is also permissible. [Alamgiri]

    Law: Even though it is permissible to look towards the face of a strange woman, if there is no risk of lustful feelings, but this is an era of waywardness (corruption). In this time, where do we find people

    image

    1. Balwa-e-Aam refers to Common Dilemma, i.e. the avoidance of which is extremely difficult.

    2. Bai’at refers to the Oath of Allegiance.

    3. Wherever in this book we discuss touching or looking at a small child or minor etc. it must be noted that this refers to touching or looking at them with compassion. This does not refer to touching or looking with ill-intention, as to do so is an accursed act and totally forbidden. One who behaves in this atrocious manner with children is deserving of the fire of hell.

    4. Mushtihaat means desirable. In other words, it refers to one who excites his passion.

    like the (pious) people of the past? Hence in this time, it will be cautioned against looking towards them, except in the case of witnesses, when they have to come before the Qazi, as this is to look at them due to necessity. There is also another circumstance pertaining to this. That is when a person intends to make Nikah (marry) that woman. In such a case to look at her for the said reason is permissible, for it has been mentioned in the Hadith that one should see the person that he intends to make Nikah to, as this will be a means to an everlasting love. Similarly, a woman may see that man who has sent a proposal of marriage towards her, even if there is a risk of lustful feelings stemming from this, but the intention of both should be that they wish to act upon the Hadith. [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

    Law: If one is not able to see the girl that he intends to make Nikah to, like nowadays, there is this custom that once someone sends a proposal of marriage (i.e. asks for the hand of a woman in marriage), then (the family) will not allow him to see her under any circumstances. In other words they practice such vigorous pardah with him, that such pardah is not even conducted with others. In such a situation, the person (who intends to marry the woman) should send another female to see her and she should return and explain to him regarding the girl and her looks and features etc., so that he is content regarding her looks and features. [Raddul Muhtar]

    Law: (In a situation where) the woman that a man intends to marry has a daughter, and he has been informed that she is exactly like her mother in looks and features, (then) it is not permissible for him to look at her if she is Mushtihaat, because he intends to marry her mother. [Raddul Muhtar]

    Law: Another circumstance wherein one is allowed to look towards a strange woman is in the situation of illness, where she is ill and there is a need to look towards certain parts of her body, and there also arises the need to touch certain parts of the body. For example, one has to touch the hands to check the pulse or if there is the notion of their being swelling in the stomach, then to feel the stomach becomes necessary or if there is a sore (wound) on any part, then it needs to be seen and in some cases, one also needs to feel it. In such a condition, to look at the area of the illness and based on this necessity, to touch that area is also permissible. This is in the situation where there is no female to treat this illness. We should teach females as well how to treat illnesses, so that they may be able to assist in such situations, as there is no such predicament in her looking, as it is for a male to look etc. (at the body of a female). In most places, there are midwives who are able to treat the swelling of the stomach etc. In places where there are midwifes who are able to treat these situations, there the necessity to look does not exist for males any more. Even when having to look due to illness, it is also necessary to take precaution to only open that portion of the body which needs to be examined. The rest of the body should be thoroughly covered, so that the sight does not fall on it. [Hidaya etc]

    Law: If there is a need to do a clyster, then a male may also look at the area of the procedure of a male. This too is (ony) permissible on the basis of necessity and when performing the circumcision, to look at the area of circumcision is also allowed and even to touch it is permissible, as this too is on the basis of necessity. [Hidaya, Alamgiri]

    Law: If a female needs to have Fasd (phlebotomy) performed, and there is no female who is qualified to let out the blood properly, then it is permissible to have it done by a male. [Alamgiri]

    Law: If a strange woman is wearing very thick clothing, whereby the shade of her body etc. is not visible; then to look towards her in such a condition is not impermissible, because in this condition one is not looking at her, but one is looking at the clothing. This only applies when her clothing is not tight. If she is wearing tight clothing, whereby the silhouette of the body is apparent, for example if she is wearing tight pants, then the shape of the shin and the entire thigh becomes noticeable. To look towards her in such a condition is impermissible. Similarly, some women wear very thin clothing such as fine muslin, lace or knitwear and very thin soft thin Muslin scarves and head coverings, through which the hair on the head and the blackness of the hair and the neck or ears are visible. Some of them wear thin tops and knitted kurtas which allow the back and the stomach to be completely exposed. To look towards them in such a condition is Haraam, and for them to wear such types of clothing in such circumstances is also impermissible. [Alamgiri]

    Law: When a Khasi1, i.e. one whose testicles have been removed, or a Majboob2 reach the age of fifteen, then even for them to look towards a strange woman is impermissible. The same ruling applies to effeminate persons3. [Hidaya]

    Law: That part of the body which is impermissible to look at is also impermissible to look at if it has been separated from the body, for example the hair of the legs. It is not allowed for another person to see this even after it has been removed from the body. The same applies to the hair from a females head, or her feet or the bone of the wrist.

    image

    1. Khasi refers to an eunuch i.e. one whose testicles have been removed

    2. Majboob refers to one whose male organ (penis) has been cut off

    3. This refers to those males fond of behaving and using make-up like a woman

    These parts of the body of a female cannot be seen by a strange male even after she has passed away. Even the toe nails of a female should not be seen by a strange male. He may look at the finger nails. [Durr- e-Mukhtar]

    It has often been noticed that some people remove their pubic hair, leaving it in the toilet or in the bathroom. It is not proper to do this. They should be put somewhere that no one can see them, or they should be buried in the ground. It is also necessary for females to hide the hair that has fallen off whilst combing the head or whilst taking a bath, so that the sight of a strange person does not fall on it.

    Law: If beard or moustache hairs begin to grow (on the face) of a female, then to pluck them out is not only permissible, but it is also regarded as Mustahab (desirable), so that due to this, her husband may not feel any repulsion towards her. [Raddul Muhtar]

    Law: To be alone with a strange female, i.e. for both of them to be alone in one house, is Haraam. However, if she is so old, that she does not have the ability to feel lust, then to be alone with her is allowed. If a person gave a woman Talaaq-e-Baa’in (Second Legal Divorce in Shariah), then to live alone with her in a house is impermissible, and if there is no other house, then a pardah should be placed between the both of them, so that both of them live in their own separate sections. This is only in the condition where the husband is not a fasiq (sinful person), and if he is a fasiq, then it is necessary that another such female should live there, who has the ability of stopping the husband from the woman. [Raddul Muhtar, Durr-e-Mukhtar]

    Law: To be in privacy (alone) with Mahaarim is permissible. In other words, both of them are allowed to be alone in the same house, but if the foster sister and mother-in-law are alone, then to be alone with them in the same house is not permissible. The same ruling applies to the woman’s daughter who is from another husband. [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

    Chapter 13

    Regarding Seeking Permission To Enter A House

    Allah ﻞﺟوﺰﻋ commands

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“O you believe! Do not enter into other houses, but your own houses, until you have not requested permission and greeted those therein. That is best for you, so that you may observe the advice. And if you do not find anyone in those houses, then enter not, until you have not been granted permission. And if you are told to return (go back), then, come back. This is more virtuous for you. And Allah Knows all that which you do. There is no sin in this for you that you may enter into such houses which are not occupied by anyone, and it serves of some purpose to you. And Allah Knows of that which you disclose and of that which you hide.” [Surah 24 Verses 27-29]

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“O you who believe! Let those whom you are the owner of (slaves) and those of you who have not as yet come of age, seek your permission, at three times: before the morning prayer; and when you remove your clothing at noon and after the Esha (Night) prayer. These three are times of modesty (privacy) for you. Besides these three (times), there is neither any wrongdoing on your, nor on theirs, (that) they may come and go before you, each going before the other. Thus, Allah explains His Signs for you. And Allah is All Knowing, The Wise.” [Surah 24 Verses 58-59]

Hadith 1: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Sa’eed Khudri ؓ that Abu Musa Ash’ari ؓ came to us. He said, ‘Hazrat Umar ؓ had summoned me, so I went to his door (i.e. his house) and conveyed salaam thrice. I did not get any reply, so I returned. Now, Hazrat Umar ؓ is asking my reason for not coming; so I said, ‘I came and conveyed Salaam thrice at the door. When I did not get any reply, I returned. Rasoolullah  said to me that when a person requests permission thrice and he does not get an answer, he should go back’. Hazrat Umar ؓ said that ‘I should bring a witness (to confirm) that Huzoor  said this’. Abu Sa’eed Khudri ؓ says, ‘I went forth and testified to this’.’

Hadith 2: It is in Sahih Bukhari from Abu Hurairah ؓ. He says he ‘entered the house with Rasoolullah . Huzoor  found some milk

in a bowl and said, ‘Abu Hurairah! Go to the Ashaab-us-Suffah and ask them to come here’ (so that they may be given milk to drink). I called them over. They arrived and then requested permission. Huzoor  granted them permission and then only did they enter the house.’

Hadith 3: Abu Dawud reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When a person is called (summoned) and he comes with the very person who has called him, then this (calling) is sufficient, as permission for him’. In other words, in such a situation, he has no need to request permission.

In another narration it has been mentioned that to send someone to call him is permission by itself. This ruling is only when he comes immediately (on being called). It is deduced from circumstantial evidence, that if the owner of the house is awaiting your arrival and the pardah (curtain) has already been drawn in the house, then in such a situation there is no need to request permission, and if one arrives late, one should seek permission, like the Ashaab-us-Suffah sought permission.

Hadith 4: Tirmizi and Abu Dawud reported from Kuldah bin Hambal ؓ. He says, ‘Safwan bin Umay’ya had sent me to Nabi Kareem . I entered (the house) without conveying Salaam and without seeking permission (to do so)’. Huzoor  said, ‘Go out and

say ْ ﻜﻴْ ﻠ' ﻋ

م ﻼ' ﺴ ﻟﺍ' ؟ﻞ

ﺧ دْ ﺍ' May I enter? As Salaamu Alaikum’.

Hadith 5: Imam Maalik reported from Ata bin Yasaar. He says that a person enquired from Rasoolullah  ‘Should I even request permission from my mother when I go to her?’ Huzoor-e-Akram  said ‘Yes’. He (Yasaar) said, ‘I live with her in the very same house’. Huzoor  said, ‘Take her permission before going to her’. He said, ‘I

attend to her, in other words I have to go to and fro to her, so what need is there to request permission from her?’ Huzoor  said, ‘Take her permission before you go to her. Would you like this, that you should see her unclothed?’ He said, ‘No!’ He  said, ‘So seek her permission’.

Hadith 6: Baihaqi reported in Sha’bul Imaan from Jaabir ؓ that Nabi Kareem  said, ‘Do not give permission to that person who does not make Salaam before requesting permission’.

Hadith 7: Abu Dawud reported from Abdullah ibn Basr ؓ. He says that ‘when Nabi  went to the door (i.e. home) of any person, He  would not stand directly in front of the door, but He  used to stand either to the right or to the left of the door, and He  would

say, ْ ﻜﻴْ ﻠ' ﻋ

م ﻼ' ﺴ ﻟﺍ' ﻢْ ﻜﻴْ ﻠ' ﻋ

م ﻼ' ﺴ ﻟﺍ' This was because there were no curtains on

the doors in those days’.

Hadith 8: Tirmizi reported from Thaubaan ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘It is not Halaal upon any person that he may look into the house of someone without seeking his permission. If he looked inside, then he has actually entered (that house). Do not lead any nation in Imamat (i.e. do not be the leader of any nation) and then only make Dua specifically for yourself and not for them. If he does so, then he has betrayed their trust’.

Hadith 9: Imam Ahmed and Nasa’i have reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘For the one who peeps into the house of someone without permission, and they burst his eye, neither is there any Diyat1 nor any Qisas2.

image

  1. Diyat refers to blood money

  2. Qisas in this context refers to vengeance

Hadith 10: Tirmizi reported from Abu Zir ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Whosoever moved the curtain and looked into a house before attaining permission, he has committed such an act which is not Halaal for him. If someone were to burst his eye, then there is no charge against him. If a person went to such a door on which there is no curtain and his sight fell upon the lady of the house (unintentionally), then it is not his fault but it is the fault of those in the house’. (i.e. why did they not hang a curtain over the doorway).

Laws of Jurisprudence

When a person visits the house of someone, he must first seek permission to enter. After entering, he should convey Salaam. Thereafter, he should start any conversation. If the person whom you have gone to see is outside, then there is no need for permission. Just convey Salaam and commence the conversation. [Khania]

Law: If one visits someone and then calls out (or knocks) and is asked, who it is, do not say ‘Me’ in reply, just as many people do. Huzoor  disliked this answer. One should mention his name when replying, because the word ‘me’ is used for every person about himself. How then does this suffice as a reply?

Law: If you requested permission and the owner of the house did not grant you permission, do not be upset with him and do not have any ill feelings in your heart. Leave there happily. There is a possibility that he did not have the time to meet with you, as he was engrossed in some important work.

Law: When entering a home in which there is nobody present, say

' ْ ﺤ, ,ﻠﺼ ﻟﺍ ,ﷲﺍ,دﺎﺒ' ,ﻋ ' ﻋ

و' ﺎﻨ' ':ْ ﻠ'

م ﻼ' ﺴ ﻟﺍ' The Angels will reply to this Salaam. [Raddul

Muhtar] or say ﻨﻟﺍ ﺎ,aﻳﺍ ﻚﻴﻠﻋ مﻼﺴﻟﺍ because the Blessed Soul of Huzoor 

is present in the home of every Muslim.

Law: If a person arrives and starts conversing without conveying Salaam, one has the right not to respond to what he is saying, because Rasoolullah  said, ‘Do not respond to the words of one who converses before conveying Salaam’. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: Convey Salaam on arriving and when departing. Even if a wall or a tree comes between two people, then too they should convey Salaam. [Raddul Muhtar]

Chapter 14

Etiquettes of Conveying Salaam (Greeting)

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“When you enter houses, then convey Salaams to one another; A greeting which is from Allah, Blessed and Pure.” [Surah 24 Verse 61]

Hadith 1: In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said that ‘Allah ta’aala created Adam مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ. He was sixty cubits tall. When He created him, He commanded him to go to the Angels and convey Salaam to them and then listen to what they say in reply to you. Whatever they reply is your salutation (salaam and greeting) and the salutation of your offspring. Hazrat Adam

مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ approached and said ْ ﻜﻴْ ﻠ' ﻋ

م ﻼ' ﺴ ﻟﺍ' They replied by saying

ْ ﻠ' ﻋ

م ﻼ' ﺴ ﻟﺍ'

ﷲﺍ ﺔ ﻤ'ْ ر و Huzoor  said that the Angels replied by adding ﷲﺍ ﺔ ﻤ'ْ ر و

Huzoor  said, ‘Whosoever enters Jannat, will be in the form of Adam مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ and he will be sixty cubits tall’. After Adam مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ the height of the people became shorter as time passed, until this time (where humans are very short in height).’

Hadith 2: In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim it is narrated from Abdullah ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that a person enquired from Rasoolullah

 regarding which is the best feature about Islam. Huzoor  said, ‘To supply food and to convey Salaam to those whom you know and to those whom you do not know’.

Hadith 3: Nasa’i reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah

 said, ‘One Momin (true believer) has six duties over another Momin: (1) To visit him when he is ill. (2) To present yourself in his Janaazah when he passes away. (3) To accept his invitation when he invites you. (4) To convey Salaam to him when you meet him. (5) To reply to him when he sneezes. (6) In his presence and absence, to wish for good for him’.

Hadith 4: Tirmizi and Daarimi reported from Hazrat Ali ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘There are six duties of a Muslim upon a Muslim:

(1) When you meet with one whom you know well, to convey Salaam to him. (2) When he invites you, you should accept. (3) Reply to him when he sneezes. (4) Visit him when he is ill. (5) Go with his Janaazah when he passes away. (6) Whatever you love for yourself, you should love for him’.

Hadith 5: In Sahih Muslim it is reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘You shall not enter into Jannat, unless you do not bring Imaan and you shall not be Momins unless you do not love one another. Should I not inform of such a thing, that if you do it, it will cause you to love one another? It is this, that you should make the conveying of Salaam widespread (common) amongst you’.

Hadith 6: Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi, and Abu Dawud report from Abu Umama ؓ that Rasoolullah  said ‘The one who conveys Salaam first is the one more deserving of Allah’s Mercy’.

Hadith 7: Baihaqi has reported in Sha’bul Imaan from Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ؓthat Rasoolullah  said, ‘A person who conveys Salaam first, remains free from arrogance (pride)’.

Hadith 8: Abu Dawud reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Nabi Kareem  said, ‘When a person meets with his brother, he should convey Salaam to him. Then if a tree, a wall or a rock becomes an obstacle between them and they meet (see each other) again, then they should convey Salaam again’.

Hadith 9: Tirmizi reported on the authority Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Son! When you visit your family, (you should) convey Salaam to them. The abundant blessings of this will be upon you and your household’.

Hadith 10: Tirmizi reported from Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah 

said that ‘(Conveying) Salaam is before initiating any discussion’.

Hadith 11: Tirmizi reported from Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Salaam should precede Kalaam (a conversation) and do not ask someone to eat with you, unless he does not convey Salaam’.

Hadith 12: Ibn Al Najaar reported from Hazrat Umar ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Salaam is before asking a question. If a person asks before conveying Salaam, then do not reply to him’.

Hadith 13: Tirmizi and Abu Dawud reported from Abu Hurairah

ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When a person arrives at any gathering, he should convey Salaam. Then if he wishes to sit there, he may remain seated. If he wishes to get up from there (i.e. leave), then he should convey Salaam, because the first Salaam is not any better

than the last Salaam’. In other words, just as that is Sunnat, this too is Sunnat.

Hadith 14: Imam Maalik and Baihaqi have reported in Sha’bul Imaan from Tufail bin Abi bin Ka’ab that in the morning when he would go to Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر he would take along with him to the marketplace. When he passed by any person who was selling things that were not so good and when he passed by other sellers, or by any orphans or anyone else, he would convey Salaams to all of them. Tufail says, ‘One day I presented myself before Hazrat Abdullah ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر and he requested me to accompany him to the marketplace. I asked what he would do at the market place. (I said), neither do you stand there, nor do you query about any product. You do not even purchase anything and nor do you sit in the gatherings of the marketplace. Rather you sit here and we can talk. In other words you can relate some Hadith (to me)’. He said ‘I visit the marketplace to convey Salaams, so that I may convey Salaam to whomsoever I meet (there)’.

Hadith 15: Imam Ahmed and Baihaqi have reported in Sha’bul Imaan from Jaabir ؓ that one day a person presented himself before Nabi Kareem  and said, ‘The fruit belonging to a certain person are (encroaching) on my orchard and this is causing me inconvenience’. Huzoor  sent a person to summon that person and then said to him, ‘Sell your fruits!’ He said, ‘I will not sell them’. Huzoor  said, ‘Give it as a gift!’ He said, ‘No!’ Huzoor-e-Akram  said, ‘Sell it in exchange for the fruits of Jannat!’ He said, ‘No!’ Huzoor  said, ‘I have not seen a more miserly person than you, except for that person who is miserly in conveying Salaam’.

Hadith 16: Baihaqi reported from Hazrat Ali ؓ that he said, ‘If a congregation (delegation) passed by some place and if one from that

delegation conveys Salaam, it is sufficient and from those who are seated there, if one of them replies to the Salaam, then that is sufficient’. In other words, it is not necessary for everyone to give a reply.

Hadith 17: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah

ؓ that one who is on a conveyance (riding etc.) should convey Salaam to the one who is on foot and one who is walking on foot should convey Salaam to one who is sitting and a small group of people should convey Salaam to a large group of people. In other words, if on one side there are a few people and on the other side there are more, then those who are few should convey Salaams to those who are more.

There is another narration of Bukhari that the younger ones should convey Salaams to the elders and those passing by should convey Salaam to those sitting and few should convey Salaams to many.

Hadith 18: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah  passed by (some) children and conveyed Salaam to them.

Hadith 19: It is in Sahih Muslim from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Do not initiate the greeting of salaam to a Jew or a Christian and when you meet them on the road, then compel him to the narrow path’.

Hadith 20: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Usaama bin Zaid ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  passed by a gathering in which there were Muslims, polytheist (idol worshippers) and Jews altogether. Huzoor  conveyed Salaam. In other words he did so with the intention of (greeting) the Muslims.

Hadith 21: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When the Jews greet you they say, ﻚﻴﻠﻋ مﺎﺴﻟﺍ ‘As Saamu Alaik’ then in answer to them, you

should say ﻚﻴﻠﻋ و ‘Wa Alaik’. In other words, you should not say, ﻚﻴﻠﻋ مﻼﺴﻟﺍ و ‘Wa alaikas Salaam’. The meaning of مﺎﺳ ‘Saam’ is death, so they are not really conveying Salaams, but they are praying for the

Muslims to die quickly.

It is similarly reported from Anas ؓ that when the Ahl-e-Kitaab (People of the Book) convey Salaam, reply by saying, ﻚﻴﻠﻋ و

Hadith 22: In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim it is reported from Abu Sa’eed Khudri ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Avoid sitting on the roads’. They (the people) said ‘Ya Rasool’Allah  we cannot help sitting (on the roads) as these are (the places) where we have discussions’. Rasoolullah  said, ‘If you refuse to listen and still sit there, then fulfil the rights of the road’. They said, ‘What are the rights of the road, Ya Rasool’Allah ?’ He said, ‘Lowering your gaze, refraining from harming others, replying to Salaam, and commanding what is good, and forbidding what is evil’.

Hadith 23: In Sharhus Sunnah it is narrated from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘There is no benefit in sitting on roads, except for him who shows the way (gives direction), replies to Salaams, lowers his gaze and assists in carrying heavy items’.

Hadith 24: It is in Tirmizi and Abu Dawud from Imraan bin Haseen

ؓ that a person presented himself in the Holy Court of Nabi Kareem

 and said ْ ﻜﻴْ ﻠ' ﻋ

م ﻼ' ﺴ ﻟ

Huzoor  replied to him and he sat down.

Huzoor  said, ‘For him there are ten’, i.e. there are ten good deeds.

A second person arrived and he said (the words) ﷲﺍ ﺔ ﻤ' ْ ر

و ﻢْ ﻜﻴْ ﻠ' ﻋ

م ﻼ' ﺴ ﻟﺍ'

Huzoor  replied to him and he sat down. He  said, ‘For him

there are twenty’. Then a third person arrived and he said, و' ْ ﻜﻴْ ﻠ' ﻋ

م ﻼ' ﺴ ﻟﺍ'

ﺗﺎ' Sﺮ'ﺑ و

,ﷲﺍ ﺔ ﻤ' ْ ر

He  replied to him and he too sat down. Huzoor 

said, ‘For him there are thirty’.

Hadith 25: It is in Tirmizi on the authority of Amr bin Shu’aib, who narrated from his father, who narrated from his grandfather that Rasoolullah  said, ‘One who emulates other than us is not from amongst us. Do not emulate the Jews and Christians. The salaam (greeting) of a Jew is by the raising of the finger and the greeting of a Christian is by gesturing with the palm’.

Hadith 26: Abu Dawud and Tirmizi have reported on the authority of Abu Jurai ؓ. He says, ‘I presented myself in the Holy Presence of Huzoor  and said: مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ﻚﻴﻠﻋ. I said this twice’. Huzoor-

e-Akram  said, ‘Do not say مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ﻚﻴﻠﻋ ‘Alaikas Salaam’. مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ﻚﻴﻠﻋ is the salaam (salutation/greeting) of the dead. You should say مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ﻚﻴﻠﻋ ‘As Salaamu Alaika’.

Laws of Jurisprudence

Law: When conveying Salaam, the intention should be to safeguard the dignity, honour, wealth, and all the other belongings of the person to whom you are conveying Salaam (i.e. by conveying salaams to him, he is safe from any harassment by you). To hinder him in any with regards to these things is Haraam. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: Do not only convey Salaam to those whom you recognise, but you should convey salaam to all Muslims, whether you know them or not. Actually some Sahaba-e-Kiraam would visit the market place with the intention of meeting many people, thus allowing them the opportunity to convey Salaam to more people.

Law: There is a difference of opinion regarding whether it is more virtuous to convey Salaam or to reply to the Salaam. Some have said that to reply to the Salaam is more virtuous, as it is Sunnah to convey Salaam and Waajib to reply to the Salaam. Some have said that it is more virtuous (Afdal) to convey Salaam, as there is humility in doing so, and as far as the reply is concerned, then all generally reply to salaam, but in some instances, there are some people who regard it beneath their status to convey salaams to others. [Alamgiri]

Law: Even when conveying Salaam to a single person, the Salaam must be conveyed in the plural form. In other words, one should say

ْ ﻜﻴْ ﻠ' ﻋ

م ﻼ' ﺴ ﻟﺍ' ‘As Salaamu Alaikum’ and the person replying to the Salaam

should say

مﻼﺴ: ﻟﺍ ﻢﻜﻴﻠﻋ و ‘Wa alaikumus salaam’. One should not say ﻚﻴﻠﻋ

‘Alaika’ instead of ﻢﻜﻴﻠﻋ ‘Alaikum’. If one conveys Salaam to two or more than two person, he should still say ﻢﻜﻴﻠﻋ and it is better to mention the words Rahmat and Barkat as well. In other words one

should say ﺗﺎ' Sﺮ'ﺑ و' ,ﷲﺍ ﺔ ﻤ'ْ ر

و' ْ ﻜﻴْ ﻠ' ﻋ

م ﻼ' ﺴ ﻟﺍ' and the one replying should say the

same, i.e. the salaam should end with ﺗﺎ' Sﺮ'(and) thereafter, there is no need to add any other words. [Alamgiri]

Law: Even though ﻢﻜﻴﻠﻋ مﻼﺳ ‘Salaamun Alaikum’ is also Salaam, but this is common amongst the shias, and when a person hears one conveying Salaam in this manner, the mind of the person involuntarily goes towards this thought that the said person seems to be a Shia and he should be avoided.

Law: To immediately reply to Salaam is Waajib (compulsory). It is sinful to delay the reply without a valid reason, and this sin is not compensated for, by replying to the Salaam later. One must make tauba for this. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If one conveys Salaam to some people (a group of people) and none from amongst them replied to his Salaam, but another person who is not part of that group (or gathering) replies to the Salaam, then this Salaam will not be regarded as the reply on behalf of the Ahl-e-Majlis (Those in that particular group or gathering). In other words, these people will not be absolved from the responsibility of replying to the Salaam. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If one delegation visited another delegation and none conveyed Salaam from amongst them, then all of them are responsible for relinquishing the Sunnah and all of them are blameworthy and if even one from amongst them conveyed Salaam, then all of them are absolved (of their responsibility) and it is more virtuous for all of them to convey Salaam. Similarly, if none from amongst them replied to the Salaam, then all of them are sinful and if one person only replied to the Salaam, then all of them have been absolved (of their responsibility), but it is more virtuous for all of them to reply to the Salaam. [Alamgiri]

Law: If a person enters a gathering and conveys Salaam, it becomes Waajib upon those present in the gathering to reply to the Salaam and if he conveys Salaam for the second time, it is not Waajib to reply to the Salaam again. If someone entered a gathering and said ﻚﻴﻠﻋ مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ‘As Salaamu Alaika’ in other words he used the singular tense, and (in this case) if just one person replied to the Salaam, the reply will be regarded as being fulfilled. It is not necessary for that person to whom he gestured, to reply to the Salaam. However, if when conveying the Salaam, he specifically mentioned the name of the person whom he was addressing by saying ‘So and So person’ ﻚﻴﻠﻋ مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ‘As Salaamu Alaika’, then that specific person would have to reply to the Salaam. The reply by another person will not be regarded as the equivalent of his reply. [Khania, Alamgiri]

Law: One conveyed Salaam upon the Ahl-e-Majlis1 and from amongst them, a Na Baaligh Aaqil2 replied to the Salaam, then this Salaam is sufficient. If an old woman replies to the Salaam, then this reply is also regarded as sufficient. If a young female, an insane person or a child who has not reached the age of understanding replies to the Salaam, then this Salaam is not sufficient. [Durr-e- Mukhtar]

Law: If a beggar came to your door and conveys Salaam, to reply to the Salaam is not Waajib. If Salaam was conveyed to the Qazi whilst he is convening a session of his court, it is not Waajib for him to reply to the Salaam. If people are eating and if someone arrives, he should not convey Salaam. However, if he is hungry and knows that by conveying Salaam, they will ask him to join them, then he should convey Salaam. [Khania, Bazaazia]. The (law with regards to not conveying Salaam to those who are eating), is only applicable when there is already a morsel of food in the mouth of the eating person and he is already chewing it, as he is thus unable to speak. If he has only just sat down to eat or if he has already completed eating, then one may convey Salaam, as the person is now not unable to convey Salaam. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If one person is coming from a city, whilst another is coming from a village. Who from amongst the both should convey Salaam?

image

  1. Ahl-e-Majlis refers to those seated in a gathering.

  2. Na-Baaligh Aaqil refers to one who has not yet reached the age of puberty, but is of sane nature (i.e. one with understanding).

Some have said that the person from the city should convey Salaam to the villager and some Ulama say that the villager should convey Salaam to the person from the city. One person is sitting, whilst another is passing by, (then in this case) the passer-by should convey Salaam to the person sitting there and the younger one should convey Salaam to the elder and the one on a means of transport should convey Salaam to the pedestrian and a few should convey Salaam to a crowd. If a person comes from behind, he should convey Salaam to the one in front of him. [Bazaazia, Alamgiri]

Law: If a male and female meet, then the male should convey Salaam to the female and if a strange woman conveys Salaam to a man, then he should reply to her Salaam in a tone whereby she too is able to hear his reply and if she is a young female, then he should reply to her Salaam in a tone whereby she is not able to hear him. [Alamgiri]

Law: On entering your home, convey Salaam to those in your home (i.e. your family members). When passing by children, you should convey Salaam to them (as well). [Alamgiri]

Law: Salaam should not be conveyed to unbelievers, and if they convey Salaams, then you may reply, but when replying, one should only say ْ ﻜﻴْ ﻠ' ﻋ' . However, if you are passing a place where there are

both Muslims and unbelievers gathered, then convey Salaam by

saying ْ ﻜﻴْ ﻠ' ﻋ

م ﻼ' ﺴ ﻟ

and make the intention that this greeting is for the

Muslims. One may also say ىﺪ,aﻟﺍ ﻊﺒﺗﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻋ مﻼﺴﻟﺍ As Salaamu Ala Mani- tabailHuda. [Alamgiri]

Law: If one conveys Salaam to an unbeliever due to an inevitability; for example, if he does not convey Salaam, then there is a danger of reprisal from him, then (in such a case) there is no harm in

conveying Salaam. One should never ever convey Salaam to a kaafir with the intention of affording him honour as to afford honour to a kaafir is kufr (disbelief). [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: Salaam is actually meant for the reason that one who has come to meet someone should convey Salaam (to him), as this is the greeting of the visitor and the one who is meeting. Therefore, (if) a person arrives in a Musjid and those present in the Musjid are engrossed in recitation of the Qur’an and Tasbeeh, and in daily prayer recitations, or if they are waiting for the Namaaz to commence, then he should not convey Salaam, as this is not the (suitable) time for Salaam. It is for this reason that the Fuqaha have mentioned that they (i.e. those present in the Musjid) have the right of either replying or not replying to the Salaam. However, if a person is sitting in the Musjid so that people may come over to meet him there, then the one who comes (for this reason) may convey Salaam. [Alamgiri]

Law: If a person is engrossed in the recitation of the Qur’an or in teaching or acquiring Islamic knowledge, or in a Religious discussion or if he is revising his Islamic lesson, then one should not convey Salaam to him. Similarly, one should not convey Salaam during Azaan, Iqaamat, Jummah Khutbah or the Khutbahs of both Eids. If all are engrossed in a Deeni discussion, or if one is conversing and others are listening, then Salaam should not be conveyed in both cases. For example, if an Aalim-e-Deen is delivering a discourse or if he is delivering a talk on a Deeni issue and those present are listening, then the one who comes in should enter and then sit down silently without conveying Salaam. [Alamgiri]

Law: If an Aalim-e-Deen is occupied in a matter of Deen and a student arrives, he should not convey Salaam, and if he does convey

Salaam, then it is not Waajib upon him (the Aalim) to reply to his Salaam. [Alamgiri]

It must be noted that even though he is not engrossed in teaching, it is not Waajib for him to reply to the Salaam, as the one who entered, has not come to meet with him, as this would make it Masnun to convey Salaam, but he actually came for the purpose of studying. This is similar to the scenario when people go to the Qazi during a session of his court. They do not go there to meet with him, but they go there to present a case.

Law: If someone visits a person and finds him engrossed in Zikr, then he should not convey Salaam to him, and if he does convey Salaams, it is not waajib upon the Zaakir1 to reply to his Salaam. [Alamgiri]

Law: One should not convey Salaam to a person who is passing urine or stool (i.e. to a person in the toilet), or a person flying pigeons, or a person singing, or a person taking a bath naked in a bathroom or public bath. For him to reply to the salaam is also not waajib. [Alamgiri]

The law regarding Salaam to a person who has already come out of the toilet, but is still walking, using a Dhela2 to dry off the (excess) urine, is the same as that for a person who is passing urine.

Law: Salaam should not be conveyed to a person who openly3 commits Fisq4. If a person has Fusaaq5 as his neighbours and if he notices that by being firm (strict) towards them, they tend to cause him more problems. However, he notices that if he is soft towards them and conveys Salaam to them and talks to them (as per necessity), then they abstain from causing any harm to him, then (in

such a situation), he is exempt in associating with them on face value. [Alamgiri]

Law: Should salaam be conveyed or not to those who are playing chess! Those Ulama who regard it as permissible to convey Salaam to them, say that the Salaam should be conveyed with the intention, that in the amount of time it takes them to reply to the Salaam, at least in that time, they will not be playing (chess). This Salaam, (should be conveyed) to protect them from sin even if it is only for such a short while. As for those who say it to be impermissible, their intention is to reprimand them, as it is to hold them in contempt. [Alamgiri]

Law: If you ask someone to convey your Salaam to another person, it is Waajib upon that person to convey the said Salaam, and once he conveys the Salaam, then the one receiving the Salaam should reply in a manner, whereby he first replies to the Salaam of the one who is delivering the Salaam and then to the Salaam of the one who initially

sent the Salaam. In other words (by saying) مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ﻴﻠﻋ و ﻚﻴﻠﻋ ‘Alaika wa alaihis salaam’. [Alamgiri]

To deliver this Salaam is only Waajib when he has taken it upon himself to do so.

image

Cont. from last pg….

  1. A Zaakir is one who is engrossed in the Zikr (remembrance) of Allah.

  2. A Dhela refers to a clod, lump or chunk of earth or clay

  3. This refers to publicly committing sin without any regret

  4. Fisq refers to sinful actions and transgressions of the Shariah

  5. Fusaaq is the plural of Fasiq which means open sinner

In other words, he said that, ‘Yes, I will deliver (convey) your Salaam’ (i.e. he agrees to conveying the Salaam), because in this situation he is entrusted with the Salaam which is a trust (Amaanah), in his possession which he has to pass on to the one who it rightfully belongs to, otherwise it is regarded as a type of trust (deposit), whereby it does not make it necessary upon him to (specifically) go there to deliver the Salaam. Similarly, people make requests to Hajis by saying, ‘Please convey my Salaam at the Exalted Court of Huzoor

’. It is even Waajib to convey this Salaam. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: It is also Waajib to reply to the Salaam which is written in a letter and in this situation, the reply is in two different ways; One is to reply to the Salaam audibly (i.e. by saying it) and the second manner is to reply by writing the Salaam when responding (to the letter). [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]. However, since it is Waajib to reply to the Salaam immediately as it has already been mentioned earlier and one usually does not respond to a letter immediately, just as it has become common that for some reason or the other, the reply to a letter is seldom written immediately. Then (in such a situation) one should immediately respond audibly (i.e. by saying it with the tongue), so that one will not be blameworthy for the sin of delaying (the Salaam). It is for this reason that at this juncture, Imam

Sayed Ahmad Tahtaawi has stated,

ن' ْ ﻠ, ﻓﺎ

ْ

س ﺎﻨ ﻟﺍو

i.e. ‘People are

negligent of it’. When A’la Hazrat Qibla ﮦV"" سﺪﻗ would read a letter, he would first audibly reply to the ﻢﻜﻴﻠﻋ مﻼﺴﻟﺍ that has been written in the letter and only after doing this, would he continue reading the actual contents of the letter.

Law: If Salaam is conveyed in a manner whereby the م ‘meem’ of the word Salaam is with a Saakin ﻢﻜﻴﻠﻋ مﻼﺳ (i.e. Salaam Alaikum), like it is the practice of most the ignorant people or ﻢﻜﻴﻠﻋ مﻼﺳ is said with the ‘pesh’ (Dam’ma) of the meem, then in both cases, to reply to the

Salaam is not Waajib, as this is not the Masnun (Customary and recommended) manner of conveying Salaam. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If someone initiates Salaam by first saying مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ﻚﻴﻠﻋ (Alaikas Salaam) or مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ﻢﻜﻴﻠﻋ (Alaikumus Salaam) then there is no reply to this. It has been mentioned in the Hadith that this is the greeting of the deceased.

Law: Salaam should be conveyed in such a tone of voice, that the person to whom Salaam is being conveyed is able to hear it. If it is not conveyed in such an audible tone, then it is not Waajib to reply to it. Even when replying to the Salaam, it should be in such an audible tone that the one who conveyed the Salaam should hear it, and if it is conveyed in such a soft tone that he is not able to hear it, then the Waajib will not be discharged (i.e. it is still Waajib). If the person is unable to hear (i.e. if he is a deaf person), then one should reply to the Salaam in front of him by moving the lips, so that he may understand that his Salaam has been replied to. The same ruling applies in replying to sneezing. [Bazaazia]

Law: To convey Salaam by means gesturing with the finger or the palm is disallowed. It has been mentioned in the Hadith that to greet by the gesturing with the finger is the manner of the Jews and to gesture with the palm is the manner of the Christians.

Law: Some people reply to Salaam by merely gesturing with the hand or (nodding) the head, and some reply just by gesturing with the eyes. The Salaam is not valid in this way. It is regarded as Salaam to convey Salaam by way of mouth (i.e. audibly).

Law: Some people even bow when conveying Salaam. If this bowing is to the extent of Ruku, then it is Haraam (Forbidden) and if it is less than this, it is Makruh.

Law: In this era, people have initiated many new styles of conveying the Salaam. The worst amongst these greetings is whereby people say ‘Bandagi Arz’. These words should never be mentioned. Some people say ‘Adaab Arz’. Even though this is not as bad, but it is contrary to the Sunnat. Some people say,‘Tasleem or Tasleemaat’.

This can be regarded as Salaam as it is in the same meaning as Salaam. Some just say ‘Salaam’. This too can be regarded as Salaam. It is mentioned in the Qur’an-e-Majeed, that when the Angels

presented themselves before Hazrat Ibraheem &,;, then ً ﻤﻠ' ﺳ

conveyed Salaam’ [Surah 11, Verse 69].

ﺍﻮ ﻟﺎﻗ

‘They

In reply to them, Hazrat Ibraheem &,; also conveyed Salaam. In other words, if someone said مﻼﺳ ‘Salaam’ then to reply by just saying مﻼﺳ‘Salaam’ will discharge the right of replying. There are also such people that leave alone them conveying Salaam to others, even

when someone conveys Salaam to them they become upset. They ask

those conveying Salaam to them, if they regard them as their equals. In other words, they take offence when being greeted with the Masnun Salaam by a poor person and they regard it as belittling their status. Others want that they should be greeted by saying ‘Adaab Arz’ or that the person greeting them should bow and gesture with his hand, and some of them are so bold, that they say, ‘Have you appointed us well-to-do weavers?’(i.e. they say this in a ridiculing manner). Allah give such people Hidaayat (Guidance) and allow them to see the truth.

Law: To proclaim مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ﻴﻠﻋ (Alaihis Salaam) with anyone’s name, is only unique to the Ambia (The Prophets) and the Mala’ika (Angels)

مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ﻢ,aﻴﻠﻋ; for example, Moosa &,;, Esa &,;, Jibra’eel &,;. With the

exception of Nabis and Angels, this should not be used with the names of anyone else.

Law: In most places, it is a common practice that when a younger person (usually children) conveys Salaam to the elders, they reply by saying ‘Jeete Raho’ (Have a long life). This is not regarded as a valid reply to the Salaam. This was actually the reply that the kufaar would give during the days of ignorance. They would say ﷲﺍ ≈ﺎﻴﺣ

Islam has taught us to say مﻼﺴﻟﺍ ﻢﻜﻴﻠﻋ و ‘Wa Alaikumus Salaam’.

Chapter 15

Regarding Shaking Hands, Embracing, Kissing And To Remain Standing

Hadith 1: Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi and Ibn Majah have reported from Bara’ ibn Aazib that Nabi-e-Kareem  said, ‘When two Muslims meet and make ‘Musafaha’ (shake hands) with one another, then even before they part, they are pardoned.’ It is in the narration of Abu Dawud that when two Muslims meet and shake hands and Praise Allah and seek forgiveness, then both shall be pardoned.

Hadith 2: Baihaqi reported in Sha’bul Imaan from Bara’ ibn Aazib

ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘That person who performs four Rakaats (Namaaz-e-Chasht) before mid-day, it is as if he has prayed it in Shab’b-e-Qadr and when two Muslims shake hands (with one another), then no sin is left (between them), but all of it is shed.’

Hadith 3: It is in Sahih Bukhari from Qatadah ؓ. He says that he asked Anas ؓ whether the practice of shaking hands was a common practice among the Companions of Rasoolullah  and he said ‘Yes’.

Hadith 4: Imam Maalik ؓ reported from Ataa Khurasani that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Shake hands with one another. The malice of the heart will fade away and share gifts with one another, as this will create love and remove animosity.’

Hadith 5: Imam Ahmed reported from Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah

 said, ‘When two Muslims meet and when one has held the hand of the other (i.e. shakes hands) then it is upon Allah as it is His Right, that their dua should be presented and even before their hands part, they shall (both) be forgiven. For those who gather together in the Zikr (remembrance) of Allah, and they have no other objective but to gain the pleasure of Allah, then a caller calls out from the skies (saying), ‘Stand up, for you have been pardoned (and) your sins have been substituted with good deeds’.’

Hadith 6: Tabrani reported from Salman ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When a Muslim meets with his Muslim brother and holds his hand (shakes hands), then both their sins fall off, just as the dry leaves of a tree fall off during a strong wind, and their sins are forgiven, even though it may be equal to the foam on the sea’.

Hadith 7: Ibn Al Najaar reported from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘The Muslim who shakes the hand of his brother and if none of their hearts bear any animosity to one another, then even before their hands part, Allah will pardon all their past sins. That person who looks towards his Muslims brother with affection (and) there is no animosity in his heart or chest, then even before he removes his sight, the past sins of both are forgiven’.

Hadith 8: Imam Ahmed and Tirmizi have reported from Abu Umaama ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘the proper manner of visiting (or comforting) a sick person is to keep your hand on his forehead or on his hand, and ask how he is feeling. The complete greeting is to make Musafaha (shake hands)’.

Hadith 9: Tirmizi reported from Anas ؓ that a person said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! When a person meets a brother or friend, should he bow to him?’ He  replied, ‘No’. He (then) asked whether he should embrace him and kiss him. He  said, ‘No’. He (then) asked, whether he should hold and shake his hand, (and) the Prophet  said, ‘Yes’.

Hadith 10: Abu Dawud reported that a person asked Abu Zir ؓ ‘Would Huzoor  shake your hands when you would meet with him?’ He said, ‘Whenever, I would meet with him, Huzoor  would shake my hands. Once Huzoor  sent someone to my home and I was not present there. On my return I was informed of this. I

presented myself (before him ). At that moment, Huzoor  was on his sacred wooden bench. He embraced me, and this felt very good! It felt very good (indeed)!’

Hadith 11: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah

ؓ. He says that he accompanied Huzoor  to the home of Hazrat Faatima ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر Huzoor  asked if Hazrat Hassan ؓ was there. After a little while, he came in running, and Huzoor-e-Akram  embraced him and he embraced Rasoolullah  as well. He  then said, ‘O Allah! I love him dearly. You too love him and love whosoever loves him’.

Hadith 12: Imam Ahmed reported from Ya’la ؓ that Hazrat Hassan and Hussain ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر came in running to Rasoolullah . Huzoor  embraced them tightly and said, ‘(your) children are the cause of greed and weakness’.

Hadith 13: Tirmizi reported on the authority of Ummul Momineen A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Zaid bin Harithah ؓ came to the Prophet of Allah  whilst he was at my home. Hazrat Zaid ؓ knocked at the door. The Prophet  rose to receive him without any mantle covering him (upper garment), trailing his garment. ‘By Allah! Never before had I seen the Prophet  go towards anyone without the covering of his mantle and never have I seen this thereafter. He  embraced and kissed him’.

Hadith 14: Abu Dawud reported from Usaid bin Huzair ؓ regarding an Ansari who was humorous in nature. He was having a conversation with the people, causing them to laugh. The Holy Prophet  poked his side with a stick. He asked the Prophet  for remuneration for this action. The Prophet  asked him to claim his remuneration. He said that the Holy Prophet  was wearing a

Qamees (Kurta) whereas he was not wearing a Qamees on his body. The Prophet  removed his Qamees. He (immediately) embraced the Prophet  and kissed the side of the Prophet  and then said, ‘This was my real intention’ (i.e. I had no intention of taking remuneration).

Hadith 15: Abu Dawud and Baihaqi have reported a mursal narration from Aamir Sha’bi that Nabi-e-Kareem  welcomed Ja’far ibn Abi Taalib ؓ and he made Muaniqa with him (i.e. he embraced him), and he kissed him between both his eyes.

Hadith 16: Abu Dawud reported from Abu Zaar’i ؓ when the delegation of the Abdul Qais tribe visited Prophet  he too was present in this delegation. He says, ‘Upon arriving in Madinah, we would swiftly go before the Prophet  from our posts, and kiss the hands and feet of the Prophet ’.

Hadith 17: It is in Abu Dawud on the authority of Ummul Momineen A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that whenever Hazrat Sayeda Faatima ر ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ presented herself before the Holy Prophet , Huzoor-e- Akram  would stand up for her. He would hold her hand and kiss her and allow her to sit in his place, and when Huzoor-e-Akram  would visit her, she would stand up, hold his blessed hand, kiss it and let him sit in her place.

Hadith 18: Abu Dawud reported from Bara’ ؓ that when Abu Bakr Siddique ؓ initially arrived in Madinah, I went to his house with him. Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر was resting due to a fever. Hazrat Abu Bakr ؓ went to her and asked, ‘My daughter! How are you?’ and he then kissed her on her cheek.

Hadith 19: Tirmizi reported from Safwan bin `Assal ؓ that two Jews came to the Prophet  and asked him about the clear signs. The Prophet  said, ‘1. Do not associate any partner with Allah. 2. Do not steal. 3. Do not commit adultery. 4. Do not unjustly take a life which Allah has forbidden you to. 5. Do not take him who is free from offence, to a King, so that he may be killed. 6. Do not commit black magic. 7. Do not consume usury (interest). 8. Accuse not the chaste of adultery. 9. Do not turn on your heels (in cowardice) during battle, and you Jews should not exceed your limitations regarding the Saturday’. After the Prophet  mentioned this, they kissed his hands and feet.

Hadith 20: Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Abdullah bin Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر He says that they went close to the Beloved Prophet

 and kissed his hands.

Hadith 21: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Abu Sa’eed Khudri ؓ that when Bani Quraiza emerged from their fortress on the command of Sa’ad bin Mu’az ؓ Huzoor  sent someone to summon Sa’ad ؓ and he was not far away from there. When he came close to the Musjid, Huzoor  said to the Ansaar ‘Stand up and go towards your leader’.

Hadith 22: Baihaqi reported in Sha’bul Imaan from Abu Hurairah

ؓ. He says that the Prophet  was sitting amongst them, having a discussion in the Musjid. When Huzoor  would rise, we too would stand up and we would remain standing for as long as we were able to see the Prophet  entering the home of one of his blessed wives.

Hadith 23: Tirmizi and Abu Dawud report on the authority of Mu’awiyah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘That person who wishes for

people to remain standing in his respect, should make the fire of hell his abode.’

Hadith 24: Abu Dawud reported from Abu Umaama ؓ that the Prophet  emerged leaning on an Asaa (Staff). We stood up for the Holy Prophet . He gestured that we should not stand in the manner in which the westerners stand, whereby some of them stand in respect of others.

In other words, the manner in which the westerners stand up for one another is contemptible and blameworthy. To stand in this manner whereby the wealthy remain seated and others stand close to them as a show of respect for them is disallowed. The other case where it is not permissible to stand for someone is when he desires that people should stand for his respect, and if no one stands to respect him, then he takes offence to this, just as it still a tradition in many parts of India even today, where the employees (or subjects) of the wealthy, leaders and landlords stand up for them and if they do not stand, then in some instances, they are firmly reprimanded for this. The Hadith of Mu’awiyah ؓ is a warning for such arrogant autocrats. If a person stands up in respect and is not doing so under any compulsion but merely because he regards the person to whom he is affording respect, to be deserving of such respect and he is standing up in order to attain reward for this, or if stands up in humility for someone, then this is not regarded as being impermissible, but it is Mustahab (desirable).

Laws of Jurisprudence

Law: Musafaha1 is Sunnat and it is proven from Tawatur2. Great virtue has been afforded to it in the Hadith. It is mentioned in one Hadith that the one who shakes the hand of his Muslim brother and in doing so moves his hand, then all his sins shall fall off. It is Mustahab (desirable) to make Musafaha on every meeting. The absolute permissibility of shaking hands shows that, in most places the common custom amongst Muslims to shake hands after Fajr and Asr Salaah is also permissible. It must be noted that those books which cite it as being bid’at3 actually refer to it as being Bid’at-e- Hasana4. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: Just as it is permissible to make Musafaha after Fajr and Asr, it is also permissible to make Musafaha after the other Namaaz’s as well. Reason being that to make Musafaha is permissible, and this can be done at any time, and it will be regarded as permissible, as long as it is not proven from the Shariat to be disallowed. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: Musafaha is when one person gives his palm in the palm of another person. Just the touching of fingers is not regarded as Musafaha. It is Sunnat to make Musafaha with both hands and there should not be anything such as a cloth etc. hindering between the hands of both persons. [Raddul Muhtar]

image

  1. Musafaha refers to shaking hands.

  2. Tawatur refers to continuous reports. In other words, in this sense it refers to Hadith that have been continuously reported in every era.

  3. Bid’at refers to an innovation and can either be good or bad.

  4. Bid’at-e-Hasana refers to a good Bid’at (Innovation).

Law: One method of Musafaha is as mentioned in Bukhari Shareef etc. on the authority of Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ؓ wherein he mentions that the sacred hand of Nabi  was between both his sacred hands. In other words the hand of each person should be between the hands of the other. The second method mentioned by some of the Fuqaha1, which they have referred to a Hadith, is where each person gives his right hand in the right hand of the other person and his left hand in the left hand of the other person and in doing so, they firmly grasp the thumbs (press them against each other), for there is an artery in the thumb, that holding it increases love (affection).

Law: The Masnun manner of Musafaha is when two Muslims meet with one another, they should first convey Salaams, which should be followed by Musafaha. One also generally makes Musafaha when departing after a meeting as well. The clarification of this being Masnun has not passed before the sight of this humble servant2, but since the legitimacy of Musafaha is proven from the Hadith, this too will be regarded as being permissible.

Law: Muaniqa3 is also permissible, as long as there is no danger of fitna4 and risk of lustful feelings emanating from it. The one with whom you are making Muaniqa should not be wearing only a Tahband5, or just a trouser, but he should also be wearing a kurta6 or achkan7, or he should be covered in a mantle. In other words, there should be a cloth between the both. [Zail’i]. It is proven from the Hadith that Rasoolullah  made Muaniqa.

image

  1. Fuqaha is plural of Faqih and refers to a Muslims Jurist.

  2. Refers to the author of Bahaar-e-Shariat, Sadrush Shariah ..ﻤﺣﺮﻟﺍ ..ﻴﻠﻋ

  3. Muaniqa means to embrace in the customary manner.

  4. Fitna in this context refers to temptation.

  5. Tahband refers to a waistcloth also known in Urdu as ‘Lungi’.

  6. Kurta is the traditional upper garment (i.e. type of shirt).

  7. An Achkan refers to a cloak or a robe.

Law: It is a common practice amongst the Muslims to make Muaniqa after both Eid prayers and this is done to show happiness. To embrace in this manner is also permissible, as long as it is free from the risk of temptation; for example, to make Muaniqa with a very good looking, beardless lad, as this is a cause for temptation.

Law: To kiss someone with lust is not permissible, but if it is out of respect and to show honour1 then it is permissible. Based on these conditions, it is even permissible to kiss someone on the forehead. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique ؓ kissed the Beloved Prophet  between his eyes. Even the kissing of the hands etc. is proven from the Sahaba2 and the Taabi’een3 ﻢ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر

Law: Some people kiss their own hands after Musafaha. To do this is Makruh and it should not be done. [Zail’i]

Law: It is permissible to kiss the hand of an Aalim and a Righteous Muslim Ruler. In fact it is even permissible to kiss his feet. If someone requests an Aalim to put forth his hand or feet so that he may kiss it (with respect), then as per the request of the said person, the Aalim-e-Deen may put forth his hand or feet towards the person so that he may kiss it. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: It is Makruh for a female to kiss a female on her mouth or cheek when meeting or when departing. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

image

  1. This refers to kissing the hands of elders etc.

  2. The Sahaba are the illustrious Companions of Rasoolullah 

  3. The Taabi’een are those true believers who did not see the Prophet  but saw the Sahaba.

Law: To kiss the ground in front of an Aalim or any elder is Haraam. The one who does this and the one who is pleased with this (i.e. one who allows it) are both sinful. [Zail’i]

Law: Bosa (Kissing) is placed into six categories:

  1. Bosa-e-Rahmat ‘To kiss out of Compassion’, like when parents kiss their children.

  2. Bosa-e-Shafqat ‘To kiss out of Kindness’, like when children kiss their parents.

  3. Bosa-e-Mohabbat ‘To kiss out of Affection’, like when a person kisses the forehead of his brother.

  4. Bosa-e-Tahiyat ‘To kiss as a greeting’, like when a Muslim kisses a Muslim when meeting (like when kissing the hand).

  5. Bosa-e-Shahwat ‘To kiss with lust’, like when a man kisses his wife. (6). Bosa-e-Diyaanat ‘Kiss of Honour’, like when kissing the Hajr-e- Aswad. [Ref. to all 6 categories is from Zail’i]

Law: The practice of kissing the Mushaf, i.e. the Glorious Qur’an is evident from the blessed tradition of the Sahaba-e-Kiraam. Hazrat Umar ؓ used to kiss the Holy Qur’an daily by saying, ‘This is the Covenant of my Rub and it is His Book’. Hazrat Uthman Ghani ؓ used to kiss the Holy Qur’an and hold it to his eyes. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: Sajdah-e-Tahiyat, i.e. to make Sajdah (prostrate), before anyone as a mark of respect when meeting them is Haraam (totally forbidden) and if it is done for any person with the intention of Ibaadat (worship), then the person who performs such a Sajdah is a kaafir (unbeliever), as it is kufr (infidelity) to make Ibaadat for anyone besides Allah. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: To make Sajdah-e-Tahiyat for a King or to kiss the ground in front of him is not regarded as kufr, but the person who performs such a Sajdah is regarded as being sinful and if he performed the prostration with the intention of Ibaadat, then it is kufr. It is even regarded as impermissible and sinful for those who visit an Aalim, to kiss the ground in front of him. The one who commits this action and the one who is pleased with it being committed, are both sinful. [Alamgiri]

Law: To bend over (bow) when meeting with someone is disallowed. [Alamgiri]. This refers to bending over to an extent where one reaches the position of Ruku.

Law: To stand up when welcoming someone as a mark of respect is permissible, and is in fact regarded as being Mandub1, provided that he is truly worthy of the respect that is being afforded to him, e.g. standing up in respect for an Aalim-e-Deen. If a person is seated in the Musjid or if he is engrossed in recitation of the Glorious Qur’an and a person deserving such respect enters the Musjid, then even in this condition, he (the sitting person or the one reciting Qur’an) may stand up as a mark of respect for him. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: That person who takes pleasure in people standing in his respect is committing an act which is undesirable and Mazmum2. [Raddul Muhtar]

(Either) this is the category of standing which has been regarded as being contemptible in the Hadith or it is that manner of standing which is common amongst the westerners, whereby the rulers (kings) remain seated and people stand up all around them in respect and honour.

To stand up to welcome someone as a mark of respect does not fall under the ruling that mentions standing to be contemptible. To present these Ahadith as evidence to refute standing during Meelad Shareef3 is ignorance.

Law: If one is concerned that not standing as a mark of respect (at a particular place) will cause the one there to have some kind or animosity and ill feeling in his heart, especially in a place where it is a practice to stand up in respect, then at such a place, one should stand up, as in doing so, you will be protecting a Muslim from having any ill feeling and animosity (in his heart). [Raddul Muhtar]

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  1. Mandub in the terminology of Shariah is that which is commendable and recommended.

  2. Mazmum in the terminology of Shariah refers to that which is contemptible.

  3. Meelad Shareef is refers to the gatherings to commemorate the Birth of The Beloved Prophet Muhammad  It is also commonly known as the Moulood and Meelad-un-Nabi. To commemorate the Moulood is permissible and a means of attaining great blessing.

CHAPTER 16

ETIQUETTES REGARDING SNEEZING & YAWNING

Hadith 1: In Sahih Bukhari it is reported on the authority of Hazrat Abu Hurairah ؓ that the Holy Prophet  said, ‘Allah loves sneezing but dislikes yawning, so if anyone of you sneezes and then

says

, ﻠ: , ﻟ

ﺪ ﻤْ ' ﻟْ

Alhumdulillah, then every Muslim who hears him

(praising Allah) must say ﷲﺍ

ﻚﻤ ' ْ '

Yarhamuk’Allah. However, as

regards to yawning, it is from shaitaan, so if one of you yawns, he should try his best to stop it, for when anyone of you yawns, Satan laughs at him.’ In other words, shaitaan becomes very happy, since this is a sign of laziness and negligence (and) shaitaan is pleased with such things. It is in Sahih Muslim that when he says ‘Haa’ (yawning sound), shaitaan laughs (at him).

Hadith 2: In Bukhari it is narrated from Abu Hurairah ؓ that

Rasool  said, ‘When one of you sneezes, he should say, ,ﷲ, ﺪ ﻤْ' ﻟْ

and

his brother or companion should say ﷲﺍ ﻚ

' ' ْ ' . Then, the one who

sneezed should say, ْ 'ﻜ ' ﺎ'ﺑ ﺢ' ,ﻠﺼْ . و ﺍ ﻢ' 'ْﻳﺪ, ,aْ' . A narration cited in Tirmizi

and Daarimi from Hazrat Abu Ayub ؓ mentions that when a person

sneezes, then he should say: لٍ ﺎﺣ

Kul’li Haalin.

ﻞ: ' � ul.ﻋ

,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ

Alhumdulillahi Alaa

Hadith 3: In Tabrani it is narrated from Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When anyone of you sneezes, he should say O::,ﻤﻟ' ﺎﻌْﻟﺍ ﺏ: ر' ,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ' ﻟْ ﺍ' Alhumdulillahi Rab’bil Aalameen’.

Hadith 4: Tabrani reports from Ibn Abbas ؓ that the Prophet 

said, ‘When a person sneezes and he says ,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ

Alhumdulillah, the

Angels respond by saying O, ::,ﻤﻟ' ﺎﻌْﻟﺍ ﺏ: ر Rab’bil Aalameen and if he says ﺏ: ر

O, ::,ﻤﻟ' ﺎﻌﻟْ ﺍ then the Angels say, ﷲﺍ ﻚ

' ' ْ 'Yarhamuk’Allah’.

Hadith 5: Tirmizi reported from Nafi’ that a person sneezed in the presence of Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر so he (the person who sneezed) said,

,ﷲﺍ ل,ْ' ر

ul.ﻋ

م' ﻼ' ﺴ, ﻟﺍو' ,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ

Alhumdulillahi Was Salaamu Alaa Rasoolillahi.

(On hearing this) Hazrat Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر said, ‘I am also saying,

,ﷲﺍ ل,ْ' ر

ul.ﻋ

م' ﻼ' ﺴ, ﻟﺍو' ,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ

Alhumdulillahi Was Salaamu Alaa Rasoolillahi,

but this is not the occasion in which to say this. Rasoolullah 

instructed us to say لٍ ﺎﺣ

ﻞ: ' � ul.ﻋ

,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ ﺍ' in such a situation’.

Hadith 6: Tirmizi and Abu Dawud reported from Hilal bin Yassaf. He says, ‘We were with Saalim bin Ubaid and someone sneezed and

he said, ْ 'ﻜﻴْ ﻠ' ﻋ

م' ﻼ' ﺴ, ﻟ

As Salaamu Alaikum. Saalim responded by saying

ﻚﻣ: 'ﺍ ul.ﻋ

و ﻚﻴْ ﻠ' ﻋ

Alaika wa Alaa Um’mika ‘Salaam upon you and your

mother’. He felt sad (i.e. he was embarrassed at being given such an answer). It has been mentioned in the narration of Abu Dawud that he said, ‘It would have been more appropriate if you had not mentioned my mother, be it with good or bad intent’. Saalim said, ‘I have said that which the Prophet  said. I gave this reply because a person sneezed in the presence of Rasoolullah  and said As

Salaamu Alaikum. He  replied by saying,

ﻣ: 'ﺍ ul.ﻋ

و ﻚﻴْ ﻠ' ﻋ

Alaika wa

Alaa Um’mika. Rasoolullah  then advised him saying that when

you sneeze say: O::,ﻤﻟ' ﺎﻌﻟْ ﺍ ﺏ: ر

,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ ﺍ' Alhumdulillahi Rab’bil Aalameen, and

the person replying should say, ﷲﺍ ﻚ

' ' ْ

Yarhamuk’Allah and the

sneezer should say, ْ '' و' uْ , ﺍ ,;.' , ﻐْ . .’

Hadith 7: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Hazrat Anas ؓ. He says that two people sneezed in the presence of the Holy Prophet . He  replied to one of them and did not reply to the other. He said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah , you replied to him (i.e. you prayed for mercy upon him) but you did not do so for me.’ He  said, ‘He said ,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ' ﻟْ ﺍ' Alhumdulillah, whereas you did not say it’.

Hadith 8: It is in Sahih Muslim from Abu Musa ؓ. He says, ‘I heard the Prophet  say that when someone sneezes and says ,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ' ﻟْ ﺍ' Alhumdulillah, then you should reply to him, and if he does not say Alhumdulillah, then do not give him any response’.

Hadith 9: It is in Sahih Muslim from Salama bin Aku’ ؓ that a person sneezed in the presence of the Beloved Prophet  so the

Prophet  responded by saying ﷲﺍ ﻚ

' ' ْ ' . He then sneezed again, (so)

the Prophet  said, ‘He has a cold’. It is mentioned in a narration cited in Tirmizi that the Beloved Prophet  said this after he sneezed thrice. In other words, this is explaining that there is no need to respond when a person sneezes constantly.

Hadith 10: Tirmizi and Abu Dawud have reported on the authority of Hazrat Abu Hurairah ؓ that when the Holy Prophet  sneezed, he would either cover his mouth with his hand or with a cloth, and he would suppress the sound.

Hadith 11: It is in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Abu Sa’eed Khudri ؓ that when a person yawns, he should place his hand over his mouth because shaitaan enters the mouth.

Hadith 12: It is in Tabrani Awsat from Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘The truth is evident when one sneezes’. It is in the narration of Hakeem on the authority of Abu Hurairah ؓ that when something is being said and one sneezes in the course of it being mentioned, then that word is true. It is mentioned in the narration of Abu Nu’aim that when one sneezes at the time of Dua, it is testimony to the truth.

Hadith 13: Baihaqi reports in Sha’bul Imaan on the authority of Ubaadah bin Saamit and Shadaad bin Aus and Waathila that Rasoolullah  said that when anyone burps or sneezes, he should

not do so aloud, as shaitaan likes it when these are done in a loud voice.

Laws of Jurisprudence

Law: To reply to sneezing is waajib, on condition that the person who sneezed says ,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ ﺍ' . It is Waajib to reply to this immediately and to reply in a manner whereby he is able to hear you. The same ruling which applies to the reply to Salaam is also applicable here. [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: To reply to sneezing is waajib once. If one sneezes for the

second time and he says ,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ

Alhumdulillah, then to reply for the

second time is not waajib, but Mustahab. [Alamgiri]

Law: When a person sneezes, he should say ,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ ﺍ' and it is better to

say O::,ﻤﻟ' ﺎﻌﻟْ ﺍ ﺏ: ر

,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ ﺍ' . When the person says ,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ

it becomes waajib

upon the one who hears him, to respond to it. If he does not

proclaim the ‘Humd’ ,

ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ

then there is no need to answer. If

someone sneezes more than once, in one gathering or sitting, one should only reply thrice. Thereafter, he has the option of replying or not. [Bazaazia]

Law: The one who sneezes should either say

O::,ﻤﻟ' ﺎﻌﻟْ

ﺏ: ر

,ﷲ ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ْﻟﺍ'

Alhumdulillahi Rab’bil Aalameen or لٍ ﺎﺣ

ﻞ: ' � ul.ﻋ

,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ

Alhumdulillahi

alaa Kul’li Haalin, and in reply to this, the other person should say,

ﷲﺍ ﻚ

' ' ْ ' Yarhamuk’Allah. Thereafter, the one who has sneezed should

either say,

مْ ﻚ' ﻟ و

ﺎﻨ'

A' ﻠ' ﻟﺍ i)' , ﻐْ .

Yaghfirullahu Lana Wa Lakum or he he

should say ْ 'ﻜ ' ﺎ'ﺑ ﺢ' ,ﻠﺼْ . و' ﺍ ﻢ' 'ْﻳﺪ, ,aْ' Yahdikumul’laahu wa Yuslihu Baalakum.

Nothing else should be mentioned, with the exception of this.

[Alamgiri]

Law: If an old woman sneezes, then a male may reply to her sneezing and if she is a young female, then he should reply in a manner whereby she does not here his voice. If a male sneezes and a female replies to his sneezing, then if she is a young female, he should reply to her in his heart, and if she is an elderly female, then he may reply aloud. [Alamgiri]

Law: If someone sneezed during the Khutbah, then the one who hears this should not reply to him. [Khania]

Law: If an unbeliever sneezed and he said ,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ ﺍ' Alhumdulillah, then

in reply to this, one should say

Muhtar]

ﺍ ﻚْﻳﺪ, ,aْ

Yahdeek’Allahu. [Raddul

Law: One who sneezes should praise Allah aloud (i.e. by saying Alhumdulillah) so that others may hear and then reply to it. If some of those present replied to the sneezing, this is sufficient for all those that are present. However, it is better for everyone present to reply. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If someone sneezed behind a wall (i.e. he is not present before

you) and he says, ,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ

Alhumdulillah, then the one who hears him

should (still) reply to it. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If the person who heard someone sneezing said ,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ

even

before the person who sneezed said it, then it has been mentioned in a Hadith that he will be protected from tooth and ear ache, and he will also be protected from gastro-enteritis. Another Hadith mentions that he will be protected from back pains. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: When sneezing, one should lower the head, cover the mouth and suppress the sound. To sneeze (intentionally) aloud is foolishness. [Raddul Muhtar]

Beneficial Note: It has been mentioned in the Hadith that to sneeze when saying something is testimony of it being a just (true) word.

Law: Many people regard it an ill-omen to sneeze. For example, if someone was going out to do something and he sneezes, then it is assumed that the particular reason for which one was going out, will be unsuccessful. This is mere ignorance as there is no basis to it being an ill-omen, and to regard that which has been mentioned as a sign of truthfulness in the Hadith, to be an ill-omen, is seriously inaccurate.

Chapter 17

Purchase And Sales

Law: Where one is not aware of the laws of purchase and sales, whereby one is able to ascertain which type of transaction is permissible and which type is regarded as impermissible. Then until the time he becomes aware, he should not do business. [Alamgiri]

Law: The sale of human faeces is disallowed, but the sale of cow dung is not disallowed. If sand or ash mixes with human faeces and is in a larger amount, such as in the case of manure, in which sand is more, then in such a case its sale is also permissible and to make use or it, in the fields (i.e. as compost) is also permissible. [Hidaya]

Law: If it is known that a Kaneez (handmaid) belongs to a particular person and some other person is selling her. However, this seller is saying that the owner has appointed him as his agent for this purpose, or he claims that he has purchased her from him (the owner), or he says that she was given to him as a gift, then in such a situation, it is permissible to purchase her and to make ‘watee’ with her. On condition that the person (who is making these claims) is Thiqa1, or when one knows there is a greater likelihood pointing to the fact that the said person is telling the truth. If one feels there is a greater likelihood that he is not honest in the information he is giving, then for him to act in this manner is not permissible. Now, if one does not know that she belongs to someone else, and the seller himself mentions that she belongs to so and so person, and that he has been appointed as an agent to sell her. In this case, one finds the seller to be reliable and trustworthy, or one finds that there is a greater likelihood pointing to him being true in his claim, then to buy her etc. is permissible. [Hidaya]

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1. Thiqa refers to a reliable and trustworthy person.

Law: The ruling is similar, when one has knowledge regarding any other entity (i.e. item of sale) which one knows belongs to a particular person. However, the seller claims that he has been appointed by the owner to make the sale, or that he has purchased it (from the owner), or that it has been given to him as a gift, then for him (the buyer) to buy such items and to profit from them is only permissible, based on the conditions that have been mentioned.

Law: The person who is selling a particular item, did not disclose that he has received it in a particular manner (i.e. he did not disclose that he has been appointed an agent to sell it etc.), and the Mushtari1 knows that the particular entity belongs to a particular person, then until he (the buyer) does not know for sure that the particular entity has come to him (the seller) in this way (i.e. in a legal manner), he should not purchase it. If the buyer has no knowledge that the particular item belongs to some other person, then it is permissible for him to buy that item. As it serves as evidence of it being his property as it is in his possession, and there is nothing contradicting this fact, and there is no other reason to merely assume that it belongs to someone else. However, if the item is such that it could not belong to such a person; for example, if the item is very valuable and the person (seller) does not seem to be the kind of person who would own such an item, or if there are books (being sold) by an ignorant person and neither were any of his elders (father or grandfather etc.) Aalims, whereby he would have received them (the books) as an inheritance, then in such a situation, it is better to abstain from purchasing such items.

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1. Mushtari refers to the Buyer.

However, if he still purchases the item, the purchasing is still regarded as permissible, as the buyer has purchased it having trust based on evidence in light of the Shariah. In other words, Possession is regarded as evidence of ownership1. [Hidaya]

Law: One should not sell his share in a shared item, unless the partner is informed of the sale. If the partner wishes to purchase it, then it is fine, otherwise he may sell it to whosoever he pleases. This means that it is Mustahab to inform the shareholders and if it is sold without the shareholder being informed, then this is Makruh. This does not mean that it is impermissible to conduct the sale without the permission (of the shareholder or partner). [Alamgiri]

Law: If the market traders purchase goods from such persons whose merchandise is pre-dominantly Haraam and, usury (interest) and sinister dealings are common within them, then doing business with them is based on three conditions: (a) if there is pre-dominant probability regarding any merchandise, which is being sold that it has been snatched by them unjustly and brought to the market place for sale, then such goods should not be purchased. (b) The second situation is that Haraam merchandise2 is specifically present, but it has become mixed with Halaal merchandise3 to such an extent, that to separate it is impossible; (then in such a case) by becoming mixed in this manner, it has become his property, but even such merchandise should not be purchased. Until such time that the seller does not convince the (proper) owner of the merchandise by compensating him for it.

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  1. In Shariah, possession is regarded as evidence of ownership, unless proven otherwise.

  2. Haraam merchandise here refers to that which was taken unjustly or stolen merchandise etc.

  3. Halaal merchandise here refers to legally attained merchandise.

However, if one has already purchased it, then it will be regarded as the property of the buyer, but it will still be regarded as repulsive. The third situation is where one knows that the actual merchandise which was usurped (i.e. forcefully or wrongfully taken), or some stolen merchandise is now not actually present (i.e. it is no more existent), then (in such a case) it is permissible to buy from that merchant. [Alamgiri]

Law: A trader should not become so engrossed in his business that it causes his Faraa’id (obligatory duties) to be omitted. Actually, at the time of Namaaz, he should stop his business transactions and immediately fulfil his Namaaz. [Alamgiri]

Law: It is permissible to sell clothing which is Najis3, but if one knows that there is a probability that the buyer will wear it to perform his Namaaz, then in such a case, he should be informed that the clothes are in an impure state. [Alamgiri]

Law: If the seller was given more than the amount due for the item that was purchased, then unless the buyer does not mention that ‘this extra is halaal upon you’, or unless the buyer does not say ‘I have made you the owner of it’, to take that extra amount is impermissible. [Alamgiri]. There are many who take a gratuity after the transaction has already been done. In other words, after the sale of the items at the stipulated price, they take a bit more than what was agreed upon. Without the seller agreeing to it, this is impermissible to take, and one should not ask for gratuity, as it is regarded as a type of begging (i.e. it is like asking for a hand-out) and to beg without a real need is not permitted.

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3. Najis refers to that which is soiled by impurity.

Law: If items such as meat, fish or fruit etc. which become spoilt easily was sold to someone and the buyer has vanished (i.e. he has not returned to finalise payment and collect the items). Where the seller fears that waiting for him will cause the items to be spoilt, then under such circumstances, he is allowed to sell the said items to some other person. The one who is aware of this, is also permitted to purchase it. [Alamgiri]

Law: The father, son or brothers of an ill person are permitted to purchase items such as medicines etc. which are necessary for him, even without his permission. [Alamgiri]

Law: To sell wholesome and clean wheat by adding dust to it is impermissible, even though it may be the norm there to add (dust etc. to the wheat). [Alamgiri]. Similarly, to sell milk by adding water to it is also impermissible.

Law: In a place where the price of bread and meat is fixed in the entire market place and it is (well-known) that it is sold at the said fixed rate. If someone made a purchase and the seller gave him less, but the buyer was not aware at the time that it was less, and only realised this shortage later, then he may claim whatever is the shortfall, as long as the buyer is also aware of the fixed rate. If the buyer is from out of town and not from that locality, then he may claim back whatever is the shortage in the bread. He will not be able to claim the shortfall for the meat because the price for bread is more or less the same in all towns and this is not the case with meat. [Zail’i]

Law: It is Makruh to sell iron and brass rings etc. which are impermissible for both males and females. [Alamgiri]

To consume opium is impermissible, so to sell opium etc., to those who consume it is also impermissible, as it is to assist in sin.

Law: If an unbeliever owes money to a Muslim and he sells alcohol and then uses the money attained from this sale to pay off his debt to the Muslim. The Muslim has knowledge that this money is from the sale of alcohol, it is still permissible for the Muslim to accept this money, as it is permissible for a kaafir to sell alcohol to a kaafir and that amount which he received as a payment is permissible (legal). Thus the Muslim may accept it towards payment of a debt. If a Muslim sold alcohol, then because this type of sale is impermissible, the amout attained from it is also impermissible and to take this money in payment of debt is thus not permissible. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. The same ruling applies in every such case where one knows that the money is precisely the money which is haraam and impure. To take such money is impermissible, such as when one knows that the money (or item) is stolen property or that which has been usurped.

Law: The payment which dancing girls (i.e. prostitutes etc.) receive from singing and dancing etc. is also regarded as being tainted money. If it is given to someone in payment of a debt or for any other account, then to accept it is impermissible. The wealth (money) of a person which he attained by unjust means or through usury (interest), should not be taken by his heirs after his death, as this is Haraam wealth. Actually if the heirs are aware that he had taken it unjustly from a particular person (or persons), they should return it to the person from whom the testator had taken it. If one does not know who he took it from, it should be distributed amongst the needy, as this is the ruling regarding such wealth. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: Money is (sometimes) lent to a grocer and he is told that the amount will continue being deducted from the goods. Even if this condition of it being deducted from the goods is not stipulated at the time of lending the money, but one knows that this is what will be done anyway, then to give him money (i.e. a loan) in this way is disallowed, because this type of loan is yielding a profit, since by him keeping (the money) with him, there is the probability of it being depleted (i.e. lost). Now this probability does not exist anymore. (It must be noted) that to yield profits from (such) a loan is not permissible. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: Ihtikar is disallowed. Ihtikar means to hold back or hoard food items, and to only sell it when it becomes more expensive. There are severe admonitions in the Holy Qur’an regarding this.

It has been mentioned in one Hadith as follows: ‘If a person makes Ihtikar (i.e. hoards or monopolises the sale of food items) for forty days, Allah will cause him to be afflicted with leprosy and poverty’.

It has been mentioned in another Hadith that a person who hoards these food items is free from blessing of Allah, and Allah is not responsible for him.

It has been mentioned in a third Hadith that the curse of Allah, the Angels and all the people befalls him. Neither will Allah accept his Nafil (optional deeds) nor his Fard (obligatory prayers). Ihtikar takes place in the food items consumed by humans, such as grain, grapes and almonds etc., as well as in the fodder which is required for animals, such as hay and straw. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: (An action) will only be regarded as Ihtikar if it is detrimental for him to hold back the grain there. In other words, if it may

become very expensive due to this, or if the situation is such that all the grain is solely in his possession and holding it back (i.e. hoarding it), can lead to famine (i.e. shortage of food) and grain is not obtainable from anywhere else. [Hidaya]

Law: The person who is responsible for Ihtikar will be commanded by the Qazi to keep only that which is sufficient to feed him and his family, and the remainder should be sold. If he now acts contrary to the command of the Qazi, i.e. he refuses to sell the surplus grain, then the Qazi may declare a befitting punishment for him and the Qazi will personally sell whatever is surplus in his possession, as this is the only way to be protected from mass disaster.

Law: If the king fears that his subjects will be afflicted severely (i.e. they may die due to hunger etc.) then he has the right to take away grain from the one who is responsible for Ihtikar and have it distributed amongst the subjects (i.e. citizens). Then, afterwards when all of them have grain in their possession (i.e. after scarcity), then he should return whatever he has taken. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: To hold back produce from your own field is not regarded as Ihtikar. However, if he (does so) waiting for the price to escalate or for there to be a scarcity etc. then he is sinful in doing this and even in this situation, if the masses require grain and grain cannot be obtained, then the Qazi will compel him to sell the grain. [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If he purchased grain from some other place (i.e. if he imported it into his city) and grain is generally imported here from there, then to hold back this grain is also regarded as Ihtikar. If it is not the routine there to bring in grain from the said place, then to hold it back is not regarded as Ihtikar. However, even in this

situation, it is Mustahab to sell the grain, as holding it back in this situation bears a type of abhorrence. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: The Ruler should not stipulate a fixed price for items. It has been mentioned in the Hadith Shareef that the people said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! The (market) price has increased drastically. We wish that you should fix the prices’. He  said, ‘Indeed Allah is the One Who fixes the prices, The One Who causes complexity, The One Who makes plentiful and The One Who gives sustenance, and I wish that I should meet Allah in a manner whereby nobody demands of me for any unjust act I did against him, neither in blood nor in property’.

Law: If the traders have increased the price of the goods (i.e. food items) drastically, and the prices cannot be controlled without it being fixed. Then after consulting with the Ahlur Rai1, the Qazi has the right to stipulate a fixed price, and that sale which has taken place based on the stipulated price is regarded as a permissible transaction. This sale (transaction) cannot be regarded as a Makruh transaction because here, there is no compulsion, as the Qazi has not forced the trader to sell. He has the right of either selling it or not. All the Qazi has done is that he has stipulated a price, and ruled that the item should not be sold higher than the stipulated price. [Hidaya]

Law: To stipulate (a market price) for the food items required by humans and fodder for animals is permissible, based on the above mentioned circumstance and this ruling also applies to other things as well. If the traders have increased the prices drastically, then even in such circumstances, the ruling is that the price can be stipulated. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

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1. Ahlur Rai refers to the People of Opinion (Judgement).

Chapter 18

The Glorious Qur’an

Reciting and teaching the Holy Qur’an is the most virtuous act. It is sufficient for one to understand that this is the Divine Word of Allah and the foundation of Islam, and the Laws of Islam are based on this. To recite it and thoroughly study it, allows man to reach a special closeness to Allah. At this juncture, a few Hadith are being presented in this regard.

Hadith 1: In Sahih Bukhari on the authority of Hazrat Uthman-e- Ghani ؓ it is reported that the Prophet  said, ‘The best amongst you is he who learns the Holy Qur’an and teaches it’.

Hadith 2: In Sahih Muslim it is reported on the authority of Uqbah bin Aamir ؓ that Rasoolullah  asked if any of us would like to go to the market of Buthaan or Aqeeq, and fetch from there two she- camels of the finest breed without committing any sin or severing a tie of kinship. We replied that ‘every one of us would love to do so’. Rasoolullah  then said, ‘Why not go to the Musjid during the morning and learn two verses of the Kitaabullah1 as this is better than (attaining) two camels and three (verses) are better than three (camels) and four (verses) are better than four (camels), and this is based on the same analogy’.

Hadith 3: In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim it is reported from Abu Musa Ash’ari ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘The example of a believer who recites the Qur’an is like a citron, which tastes good and has a good scent. The example of a believer who does not recite the Qur’an is like a date, which tastes sweet but has no smell, and the example of the munafiq2 who does not recite the Qur’an is like that of a colocynth3 which tastes bitter and has no scent, and the example of a

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  1. Kitaabullah means Book of Allah and refers to the Holy Qur’an.

  2. A munafiq refers to a hypocrite.

  3. The colocynth is also known as bitter apple, bitter cucumber or egusi and is commonly found in Asia and is extremely bitter.

hypocrite who recites the Qur’an is like a flower, which has a scent but tastes bitter’.

Hadith 4: In Sahih Muslim it is reported from Hazrat Umar ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘By way of this Book, Allah grants eminence to many and causes many to become inferior’. In other words, there is eminence for those who believe in it and act upon it, and for others there is inferiority.

Hadith 5: In Bukhari and Muslim it is reported on the authority of Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘The one proficient in reciting the Qur’an is with Kiraaman Kaatibeen1. The one who does not recite the Qur’an fluently because it is difficult for him (due to stammering) then for him there are two rewards’.

Hadith 6: It is in Sharh-us-Sunnah on the authority of Abdur Rahmaan bin Auf ؓ that Nabi Kareem  said that three things will be under the Arsh2 on the day of Qiyaamah; The Qur’an, which will argue for the servants (of Allah). It has clear and concealed (meanings); and Amaanat (Trust); and kinship, which will call out by saying, ‘Whoever has maintained me, Allah will uphold him and whoever has severed me, Allah will deny him’.

Hadith 7: Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi, Abu Dawud and Nasa’i have reported on the authority of Abdullah ibn Amar ﺎﻤ,aﻨﻋ u ﺎﻌW ﷲﺍ u"'ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘The one who has memorised the Qur’an will be asked to recite and ascend; and recite with Tarteel3 like you used to recite with Tarteel in the world; your manzil4 will be where you recited your last Ayat (verse)’.

  1. Kiraaman Kaatibeen are the Angels appointed to record our good and bad deeds.

  2. Arsh refers to the Throne of Allah.

  3. Tarteel means to recite in comprehensible and distinguishing manner of recitation.

  4. Manzil here refers to destination or final abode.

Hadith 8: Tirmizi and Daarimi have reported on the authority of Ibn Ab’bas ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘the one whose inside (i.e. his chest) has no Qur’an is like a vacant house’.

Hadith 9: Tirmizi and Daarimi have reported on the authority of Abu Sa’eed ؓ that Rasoolullah  said that Almighty Allah says ‘whosoever the (recitation) of the Qur’an has kept back from my Zikr and from invoking me, I will grant him better than that which I bestow upon those who invoke Me’. The excellence of the Divine Word of Allah over all other words is like Allah’s Divine Pre- eminence over His entire creation.

Hadith 10: Tirmizi and Daarimi have reported on the authority of Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘The person who recites a single alphabet of the Kitaabullah (Glorious Qur’an) will be awarded with the reward of one good deed, which is equivalent to the reward of ten good deeds. I do not say that ' ﻟۤ ﺍ ‘Alif Laam Meem’ is

a single alphabet, but Alif is one alphabet, Laam is the second

alphabet and Meem is the third alphabet’.

Hadith 11: Abu Dawud has reported on the authority of Hazrat Mu’az Jahni ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Whosoever recited the Qur’an and then practiced upon whatever is therein, on the day of Qiyaamat his parents will be adorned with a crown, the radiance of which is greater than the sun, but if it were in your homes. Hence, what is your view about that person who practices in accordance with what is in it?’

Hadith 12: Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi, Ibn Majah and Daarimi have reported on the authority of Hazrat Ali ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Whoever recited the Qur’an and memorised it, regarding that which it has ordained as Halaal (Lawful), to be Halaal and that which it has

ordained as Haraam (forbidden) to be Haraam. Allah ta’aala will accept his intercession on behalf of ten such members of his family, upon whom jahanum (hell) had become already waajib’ (their actions already condemned them to hell).

Hadith 13: Tirmizi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah have reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Learn the Qur’an and recite it, for he who has learnt the Qur’an and read it and performed Qiyaam reciting it, is like a bag filled with musk. The fragrance of which spreads out everywhere, and whoever learnt the Qur’an and slept, meaning he did not perform Qiyaamul Layl1, is like a bag which is filled with musk and its opening has been tied up’.

Hadith 14: Baihaqi reported in Sha’bul Imaan on the authority of Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘These hearts also become rusted similar to how iron becomes rusted when effected by water. It was queried ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! With what can it attain its brightness again?’ He  said, ‘By remembering death in abundance and by recitation of the Glorious Qur’an’.

Hadith 15: It is reported in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Jundub bin Abdullah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Continue reciting the Qur’an until such time that you feel bliss and yearning in doing so and when the heart becomes exhausted, then stand up’. In other words, stop the recitation.

Hadith 16: It is reported in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, Allah does not direct His Divine Attention towards anyone else as much as He Directs His Divine Attention towards this Nabi, who recites the Qur’an in the most beautiful voice.

Hadith 17: It is reported in Sahih Bukhari from Hazrat Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘The person who does not recite the Qur’an with Taghani2, is not from amongst us’. It has also been mentioned regarding this Hadith that ‘Taghani’ in this Hadith refers to ‘Istighna’. In other words it means that one should not take compensation from someone in return for reciting the Holy Qur’an.

Hadith 18: Imam Ahmed, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and Daarimi have reported on the authority of Bara’ ibn Aazib ؓ that Rasoolullah

 said, ‘Adorn the recitation of the Holy Qur’an with your voices’.

In the narration cited in Daarimi it is mentioned as follows: Beautify the Qur’an (i.e. recitation of the Qur’an) with your voices, for a good voice increases the attractiveness of the Qur’an (i.e. of the recitation of the Qur’an).

Hadith 19: Baihaqi reported from Ubaidah Mulaiki ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘O People of the Qur’an! Do not make the Qur’an a pillow’. In other words, do not be lazy and careless, and recite the Qur’an during the day and at night, as it is the demand of recitation, and spread it, and make Taghani’. In other words, recite it with good voices, or do not take compensation for (reciting) it, and whatever is in it, reflect upon it, so that you may attain salvation, and do not be hasty in its reward because the reward for it (which will be attained in the hereafter) is great.

Hadith 2O: Abu Dawud and Baihaqi have reported on the authority of Jaabir ؓ. We were reciting the Glorious Qur’an, and Bedouins and non-Arabs (westerners) were amongst us.

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  1. Qiyaamul Layl here refers to standing in prayer at night.

  2. Taghani here refers to reciting in a good voice.

Just then, Rasoolullah  arrived and said, ‘Recite the Qur’an! All of you are virtuous. Afterwards, (such) nations will come, who will straighten the Qur’an, as straight as an arrow, and they will prefer to take the compensation for it in haste, and they will not want to delay taking it’. In other words, they will want the compensation (reward) for it in this world.

Hadith 21: Baihaqi reported on the authority of Huzaifa ؓ that Rasoolullah  said ‘Recite the Qur’an in the tone (mannerism) and accent of the Arabs. Abstain from the tone (i.e. manner of recitation) of the Ahl-e-Ishq and the Jews and Christians. In other words, abstain from singing, like it is done in a musical manner. After me, such a nation will come that will recite the Qur’an with Tarjee1, just as Tarjee is performed in singing and in mourning. The Qur’an will not go beyond their throats. Their hearts are afflicted with waywardness and so are the (hearts) of those who enjoy this manner (of theirs)’.

Hadith 22: It is reported from Abu Sa’eed bin Mual’la ؓ in Sahih Bukhari. I was engrossed in my Namaaz and Nabi  called for me. I did not reply. (On completing Namaaz) I presented myself in the Holy Presence of Rasoolullah  and said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! I was praying Namaaz.’ He  asked, ‘is it not the Command of Allah

image ‘Present yourself before Allah and His Rasool when They summon you’ [Surah 8 Verse 24]. He  then said, ‘before leaving the Musjid, I will inform (you) regarding the greatest Surah of the Qur’an’, and Huzoor  held my hand. When I intended to leave the Musjid, I said, ‘Huzoor  mentioned that you would educate me regarding the greatest Surah of the Qur’an before I left the Musjid’.

image

1. Tarjee refers to a repetitive manner of recitation

He  said, ‘(It is) O::,ﻤﻟ' ﺎﻌﻟْ ﺍ ﺏ: ر

,ﷲ, ﺪ' ﻤْ ' ﻟْ

It is that which is Saba’ Mathani1

and the Qur’an-e-Azeem which I have received’.

Hadith 23: It is reported in Tirmizi on the authority of Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  asked Ubay bin Ka’ab, ‘How do you recite in Namaaz?’ He (then) recited Ummul Qur’an, in other words, Surah Faateha. I swear by Him, in Whose Hand (i.e. Divine Power) is my life, that there is no Surah equivalent to it in the Taurat, Injeel, and Zaboor or in the Qur’an. It is the Saba’ Mathani and the Qur’an- e-Azeem which I have received’.

Hadith 24: Surah Faateha is a cure for every illness. [Daarimi, Baihaqi]

Hadith 25: It is reported in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر who says that Jibra’eel &,; was in the Presence of Rasoolullah  when a voice was heard from above. He raised his head and (then) said that this Door of the Sky was only opened today. Before today, this door has never been opened. An Angel descended (and) Jibra’eel &,; said that this Angels has never come down to earth before today. He conveyed Salaam and then conveyed glad tidings to Huzoor  saying that two Noors have been bestowed upon Huzoor  and before Huzoor  no other Nabi had ever received this. These two Noors are Surah Faateha and the latter verses of Surah Baqara. Whichever alphabet you recite, will be rewarded.

Hadith 26: It is reported in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Do not turn your homes into graveyards, for shaitaan flees from that home in which Surah Baqara is recited’.

image

1. Saba’ Mathani refers to the seven verses of Surah Faateha and is also one of the many names of Surah Faateha.

Hadith 27: It is reported in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Abu Umama ؓ that, I heard Rasoolullah  saying, ‘Recite the Qur’an, for on the Day of Qiyaamat it will come forth as an intercessor for those who recited it. Recite Baqara and Aal-e-Imraan, the two glowing Surahs, as both of them will come forth in such a manner, like two clouds or two roofs or like two flocks of birds in rows. Both of them will argue on behalf of those who recited them’. In other words, they shall intercede (make Shafa’at) for them. ‘Recite Surah Baqara, for to take it is Barkat (a blessing) and to leave it is regrettable and the Ahl- e-Baatil1 do not have the ability to do it’.

Hadith 28: It is in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Ubay bin Ka’ab ؓthat Rasoolullah  said, ‘O Abul Munzir! (This was the title of Ubay bin Ka’ab) Which is the greatest (i.e. most supreme) verse of the Holy Qur’an that you have with you?’ I said, ‘Allah and His Rasool Knows Best’. Huzoor  said, ‘O Abul Munzir! Which is the greatest

verse of the Holy Qur’an that you have with you?’ I said:

' '6, ,,ﺍ A' ٰﻟ,ﺍ 'ﻻ

م' ْ ' ْ ﺍ u "'= ' ﻟْ (In other words

u·( ﺍ ﺖﻳﺁ Ayat-ul-Kursi)’. Huzoor  struck

my chest with his blessed hand and said, ‘Abul Munzir! May knowledge bring you delight’.

Hadith 29: It is reported in Sahih Bukhari on the authority of Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  appointed me to safeguard the charity of Ramadan (Sadqa Fitr). A person appeared and began to fill- up (take) provisions. I caught hold of him and said ‘I will take you into the Holy Presence of Rasoolullah ’. He said,

image

1. Ahl-e-Baatil refers to the People of Falsehood, i.e. the corrupt deviants.

‘I am very needy and have many dependants’. I pitied him and let him go. In the morning, Huzoor  said, ‘O Abu Hurairah ؓ, what happened to your prisoner of last night?’ I said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! He complained of being needy and of having many dependents, so, I pitied him and let him go’. He  said, ‘Indeed he has lied to you and he will return’. I knew that (undoubtedly) he would return because Huzoor  said that he would, I anticipated his return. He returned and began to fill-up (i.e. take more) provisions (foodstuff). I caught hold of him and said, ‘I will take you into the Holy Presence of Rasoolullah ’. He said ‘I am very needy and have many dependants. Please let me go, and I promise that I shall not come back again’. I pitied him and let him go. In the morning, Huzoor  asked, ‘O Abu Hurairah ؓ! What happened to your prisoner?’ I said, ‘He complained of being needy and of having many dependents, so I pitied him and let him go.’ Huzoor  said, ‘Indeed he has lied to you and he will return again’. I anticipated his return. He returned and began to fill-up the provisions. I caught hold of him and said, ‘I will surely take you before Rasoolullah  as this is the third time you have returned. You go on promising that you will not come back, but you still return.’ He said, ‘Let me go and I will teach you such words, by which Allah will grant you benefit. Whenever you go to bed,

recite ‘Ayatul Kursi’ م'ْ ' ﻟْ ﺍ u �' ﻟْ ﺍ ﻮ' '6, ,,ﺍ A' ٰﻟ,ﺍ 'ﻻ

until the end of the entire

verse, (and) Allah will appoint a protector over you and shaitaan will not come near you until morning’. So, I let him go. In the morning Huzoor  asked, ‘O Abu Hurairah ؓ! What happened to your prisoner?’ I said, ‘He said that he would teach me a few words by which Allah will grant me benefit’. Huzoor  said ‘He has really spoken the truth, yet he is an absolute liar, and do you know whom you were talking to, these past three nights?’ I said, ‘No’. Huzoor  said, ‘It was shaitaan’.

Hadith 30: In Sahih Bukhari it is reported from Abu Mas’ud ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘If a person recites the last two verses of Surah Baqara at night, then it is sufficient for him’.

Hadith 31: Almighty Allah inscribed a Book two thousands years before creating the skies and the earth. From it he revealed two verses, which are the closing verses of Surah Baqara. Shaitaan will not go near that house wherein it is recited for three nights. [Tirmizi, Daarimi]

Hadith 32: ‘The last two verses of Surah Baqara are from amongst those ‘Treasures of Allah’ which are under the ‘Arsh’. Allah has granted me (these) two verses. Learn (memorise) them and teach it to your womenfolk, as they are a blessing and (a means of) attaining closeness to Allah, and a Dua (invocation)’. [Daarimi]

Hadith 33: It is in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Abu Dardah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘the person who learns (memorises) the first ten verses of Surah Kahf will be protected from Daj’jaal.’

Hadith 34: That person, who recites Surah Kahf on Friday, will receive a glowing light between two Jummahs. [Baihaqi]

Hadith 35: Everything has a heart and the ‘Heart of the Qur’an’ is ‘Yaseen’. Allah ta’aala will record (the reward of) ten Qur’ans for the one who recites (Surah) Yaseen (once). [Tirmizi, Daarimi]

Hadith 36: Allah recited (As it is befitting Him) Ta’ha and Yaseen one thousand years before creating the earth and the sky. When the Angels heard it, they said ‘Glad tidings upon the Ummah, unto whom this will be revealed and glad tidings unto those chests which will

hold this within them, and glad tidings unto those tongues who will recite it.’ [Daarimi]

Hadith 37: The past sins of whosoever recites Yaseen solely for attaining the pleasure of Allah shall be forgiven. Thus, recite it at the side of your deceased. [Baihaqi]

Hadith 38: Whosoever recites Ha Meem Al Muminoon until Ilaihil Maseer and ‘Ayatul Kursi’ in the morning, he will be safe until the evening, and whosoever recites it in the evening, he will remain safe until morning. [Tirmizi, Daarimi]

Hadith 39: The person, who recites Ha Meem Ad Dukhaan on the eve of a Friday will attain forgiveness. [Tirmizi]

Hadith 40: Nabi Kareem  would never retire to bed unless he had completed reciting Alif Laam Meem Tanzeel and reciting the ﻚﻠﻤﻟﺍ ﮦﺪﻴﺑ ىﺬﻟﺍ ≈رﺎﺒﺗ Tabaarak’kal lazee bi Yadihil Mulk. [Ahmed, Tirmizi, Daarimi]

Hadith 41: Khalid bin Ma’daan ؓ said recite the Surah which gives salvation. It is Alif Laam Meem Tanzeel. I have heard that a very sinful person used to recite it, and he recited nothing else except this. This Surah spread its wings over him (i.e. shielded him) and said, ‘O Rub! Forgive him, for he used to recite me abundantly’. Allah ta’aala accepted its intercession and commanded the Angels to record a good in place of every one of his wrongs, and to exalt him (each time) by one fold. Khalid also said that this (Surah) will dispute on behalf of its reciter in his grave. It will say, ‘O Allah! If I am from Your Kitaab (Qur’an), then accept my intercession and if I am not from Your Kitaab, then remove me from it, and it (the Surah) will spread its wings over him like a bird and it will intercede for him and

will save him from the torment of the grave’. Khalid mentioned similarly regarding Tabaarak. For as long as Khalid would not recite both these (Surahs) he would not retire to bed. Ta’us has mentioned that these two Surahs have been given sixty virtues more than any other Surah in the Qur’an.

Hadith 42: There is a Surah of thirty verses in the Holy Qur’an which will intercede for a person until such time that he is forgiven. That (Surah) is Tabaarak’kal lazee bi Yadihil Mulk. [Ahmed, Tirmizi, Abu Dawud, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah]

Hadith 43: Some Sahaba pitched a tent on a grave. They did not know that there was a grave there. One from amongst them recited Tabaarak’kal lazee bi Yadihil Mulk until the end of the Surah. They presented themselves before the Nabi Kareem  and narrated the entire incident, so Huzoor  said, ‘It is Maani’a and Munjiya. It gives deliverance from the punishment of Allah’. [Tirmizi]

Hadith 44: One who recites Surah Waaqi’a every night will never face starvation. Hazrat Ibn Mas’ud ؓ used to advise his daughters that they should recite it every night. [Baihaqi]

Hadith 45: ‘Do you not have the ability to recite one thousand ayats daily?’ The people replied, ‘Who is it that has the capability to recite one thousand verses daily?’ He said, ‘Do you not have the capability to recite Al Haaku Mut’takathur.’ [Baihaqi]

Hadith 46: ‘Are you incapable of reciting one third of the Qur’an at night’. The people said, ‘How will someone recite one third of the Qur’an’. He  said, ‘Qul Huwal’ laahu Ahad is equivalent to one third of the Qur’an’. [Bukhari, Muslim]

Hadith 47: Izaa Zulzilat is equivalent to half the Qur’an, Qul Huwal’laahu Ahad and Qul Ya Ayuhal Kaafiroon are equivalent to one quarter of the Qur’an. [Tirmizi]

Hadith 48: The one who recites Qul Huwal’laahu (Surah Ikhlas) 200 times daily will have fifty years of his sins wiped out, except that which is due to someone. [Tirmizi]

Hadith 49: On the day of Qiyaamat, Almighty Allah will say to the one who recites Qul Huwal’laahu Ahad one hundred times whilst on his bed, resting on his right side, ‘O my servant! Enter into Paradise (Jannat) from your right’. [Tirmizi]

Hadith 50: Nabi  heard a person reciting Qul Huwal’laahu Ahad. He  said, ‘Jannat has become Waajib (upon him)’. [Imam Maalik, Tirmizi, Nasa’i]

Hadith 51: Someone asked, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! Which is the biggest (i.e. most virtuous) Surah in the Holy Qur’an?’ He  said, ‘Qul Huwal’ laahu Ahad’. He enquired, ‘Which is the biggest (most

virtuous) verse in the Holy Qur’an?’ He  said, م'ْ ' ﻟْ ﺍ u �' ﻟْ ﺍ ﻮ' '6, ,,ﺍ A' ٰﻟ,ﺍ 'ﻻ

ﺍ' . He

said ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! To receive which verse is dear to you and your Ummah’. In other words the benefit and reward of it. He  said, ‘The closing verse of Surah Baqarah, for it is from amongst those Treasures of Allah which is under the Arsh-e-Ilaahi. Allah has given that verse to this Ummat. There is no good in the world and in the hereafter that is not gathered in this verse.’ [Daarimi]

Hadith 52: Allah will assign 70 000 Angels for the one who (in the

morning) recites thrice ,ْ, ﺮ, ﻟﺍ ن, ﺎﻄ'ْ, ﻟﺍ ﻦ'

, ْ ,ﻠﻌ' ﻟْ ﺍ ﻊ, ﻴْ ,ﻤﺴ, ﻟﺍ ,ﷲﺎ,ﺑ 'ذﻮْ ' ﺍ' and then recites

the last three verses of Surah Hashr. They will make Dua for him until evening, and if he dies on that day, he will die a martyr

(shaheed) and whosoever recites it in the evening, he too acquires the same (reward). [Tirmizi]

Hadith 53: The one who recites the Qur’an should ask for (what he needs) from Allah. Soon, such people will come, who will recite the Qur’an and demand (for payment) from people. [Ahmed, Tirmizi]

Hadith 54: That person, who recites the Qur’an and demands for food (as compensation for his recitation) from the people will appear on the day of Qiyaamat, in a state whereby he will have no flesh on his face. Only bones will be visible. [Baihaqi]

Hadith 55: Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر was asked about accepting payment for writing down the Mushaf (The Qur’an, i.e. The Holy Scripture). He said, ‘There was no objection to this. These people make inscriptions and they earn a means of living from their handwork.’ In other words, this is a type of skill and to take payment for it is permissible. [Razeen]

The laws relating to the Tilaawat (i.e. recitation) of the Qur’an-e- Majeed etc. have been explained in Bahaar-e-Shariat, Part 3. One may find more detail there. A few points regarding the Mushaf Shareef have been presented here.

Chapter 19

Respect for The Qur’an

& Other Books

Law: To do gold or silver gilding on the Qur’an is permissible, as this increases the respect in the eyes of the public. To put in E’rabs and Nuqtas1 is Mustahsan2 (commendable), because if this were not done, then most people would not be able to recite it (i.e. The Qur’an) correctly. Similarly, it is permissible to insert a symbol denoting a Sajdah on an Ayat-e-Sajdah3, and inserting a symbol denoting a Waqf4 or a symbol denoting a Ruku and the Ta’sheer, in other words, the inserting of a sign after every ten verses. Similarly, it is also permissible to write the Names of the Surahs and to write how many verses there are. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Nowadays, there is also the practice of publishing translations of the Holy Qur’an. If the translation is a proper one, then there is also no objection to this being printed with the Qur’an-e-Majeed, as this assists one in understanding the meaning of the verse. However, the translation should not be published by itself (i.e. the Qur’anic Text in Arabic should be included).

Law: To use the pages of a history book as a spine for the Qur’an or as a covering for the books of Tafseer or Fiqh is permissible. [Durr-e- Mukhtar]

Law: The calligraphy in the Qur’an should be very beautiful and should be written clearly. The paper and the ink that is used for this purpose should also be of excellent quality, allowing it to look good to the one who looks at it. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

image

  1. E’rabs and Nuqtas here refers to punctuation signs in the text of Qur’an.

  2. Mustahsan refers to that which is commendable.

  3. Ayat-e-Sajdah refers to the verses of the Qur’an, which make it compulsory for one to make Sajdah on reciting or listening to it.

  4. Waqf refers to the stopping sign.

Some publishers, print on inferior paper using calligraphy that is not good (not clear) and using inferior quality ink. This should never be the case.

Law: To minimise the Hajm1 of the Holy Qur’an is Makruh. [Durr-e- Mukhtar]

An example of this is that nowadays, certain publishers have published Ta’weezi Qur’an Majeed, the text of which is so small, that it cannot even be read. Actually even the pocket edition of the Holy Qur’an should not be published, as it’s ‘Hajm’ is also minimised immensely.

Law: If the Qur’an-e-Majeed (i.e. its pages etc.) become old and unravelled, and is no more in a condition whereby it may be used for recitation and if there is a risk of its pages becoming separated and thus lost. It should be wrapped in a clean piece of cloth and buried with care in a protected place (i.e. in a place where it will not be disrespected). When burying it, a Lahd2 must be made, so that no sand falls on it. One may also place a piece of plank over it, like a roof and then throw in the sand, so that sand does not fall on it. If the (text and pages of the) Mushaf Shareef becomes old and unravelled, it should not be burnt. [Alamgiri]

Law: The significance of the Dictionaries and books of Sarf and Nahw3 are alike. The books of each can be kept on the books of the other, and the books of Ilm-ul-Kalaam4 should be kept above these,

image

  1. Hajm here refers to the thickness and volume of the Qur’an.

  2. Lahd here refers to a niche like that which is prepared in a grave.

  3. Books of Sarf and Nahw here refers to books of Grammar, i.e. Morphology & Syntax.

  4. Books of Ilm-ul-Kalaam refers to Books of Theological Rhetoric.

on top of that, should be kept the books of Fiqh and the books of Ahadith, Guidance and Books of authentic Duas, should be kept above the books of Fiqh. The Books of Tafseer should be kept above this and the Qur’an-e-Majeed should be kept right at the top. Clothing etc. should not be kept on the trunk or casket wherein the Qur’an is being kept. [Alamgiri]

Law: If one keeps the Holy Qur’an in ones home solely for the purpose of attaining Khair-o-Barkat (Blessings), and he does not recite it at all, then there is no sin in this, but his intention is deserving of reward. [Khania]

Law: If one keeps his foot on the Qur’an with the intention of showing disrespect, he will become a kaafir (unbeliever). [Alamgiri]

Law: It is permissible to be intimate with ones wife in a house in which the Qur’an is kept, as long as the Qur’an-e-Majeed is covered. [Alamgiri]

Law: The Qur’an-e-Majeed should be recited in a very good voice. One should also give Azaan in a good voice. In other words, if one does not have a good voice, he should try to bring out a good voice. To recite with ‘Lahn’, whereby there is an increase or decrease in the alphabets, like the manner that is used by singers, is impermissible. Actually when reciting, one should give consideration to the principals of Tajweed. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: To recite the Qur’an-e-Majeed in both, the Ma’ruf1 and Shaaz2 manners of recitation at once is Makruh. To recite it, in only the Qir’at-e-Shaaza, is Makruh to a greater extent. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Actually, the Qir’at that is most common in that place should be the Qir’at that is recited in the presence of the general public there, so that they may not reject it due to their lack of knowledge.

Law: It is the practice amongst the Muslims, that whilst reciting the Qur’an, if they have to get up and go somewhere, they close the Qur’an and they do not leave whilst leaving it opened. This is a sign of respect. However, it is common talk amongst some people that if the Qur’an is left opened, shaitaan will recite from it. There is no source of this. Possibly this has been made-up to direct the attention of children towards the etiquettes (of the Qur’an).

Law: It is also from amongst the etiquettes of the Qur’an not to face ones back towards it, or spread out the feet towards it. Neither should you raise your feet higher than the Qur’an, and nor should one sit in such a manner whereby one is sitting at a higher position and the Qur’an is kept lower.

Law: To keep the Qur’an-e-Majeed in a Juzdaan3 or to wrap it in a Ghilaaf4 is respectful. This has been the practice of the Muslims since the era of the illustrious Sahaba-e-Kiraam and eminent Taabi’een

o::ﻌﻤﺟﺍ ﻢ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر

Law: The shavings of a new pencil may be thrown anywhere, but the shavings of an old pencil should be kept in a proper place. It

image

  1. Ma’ruf here refers to the well-known manner of recitation.

  2. Shaaz or Qir’at-e-Shaaza refers to the rare manner of recitation from it. There is no source of this. Possibly this has been made-up to direct the attention of children towards the etiquettes (of the Qur’an).

  3. Juzdaan here refers to the case or the bag wherein the Qur’an is kept.

  4. Ghilaaf here refers to the covering of the Qur’an.

should not be thrown away. The same applies to the grass and sweepings from the Musjid. This too must be put in a proper place. It should not be thrown in a place where it is regarded as disrespectful. [Alamgiri]

It is Makruh to wrap (or keep) anything in paper that has Allah’s Name written on it. To keep money in a purse which has Allah’s Name written on it, is not Makruh. To wipe ones hands with paper after eating food is Makruh. [Alamgiri]

Chapter 20

Etiquettes of The Musjid And The Qibla

Law: To paint the Musjid with lime (i.e. whitewash) and to use mortar is permissible. It is also permissible to use gold and silver gilding on the engravings or carvings (in the Musjid), as long as this has been done with the wealth of an individual and not with money belonging to the Waqf1. If the Trustee of the Mosque used the Waqf funds of the Mosque to do such gold and silver carvings (decorations etc.), then he will have to make amends (i.e. pay the penalty for this). However, if the founder of the Musjid (i.e. the one who built the Mosque) had initially done such carvings and they have been damaged, then the Mutawali2 of the Musjid can use the Musjid’s funds to rebuild this carving (i.e. to have it repaired). Some Masha’ikh3 have mentioned that it is Makruh to do any decorations or carving etc. on the Qibla wall of the Mosque, as the heart of the Namaazi4 will be diverted towards it. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: It is permissible to use cement and to plaster the walls of the Musjid, as this allows the building to remain intact. When plastering the Musjid, or when doing plating or when using mud plaster, one should not use water that is impure. [Alamgiri]

Law: To teach (Islamic lessons) in the Musjid is permissible, even though the Musal’las5 and grass mats of the Musjid are used at the time of teaching. To eat, and sleep in the Musjid is only permissible for a Mu’takif6. This is Makruh for one who is not in I’tekaaf. If a person needs to eat or sleep in the Musjid, then he should enter the Musjid with the intention of I’tekaaf, make some Zikr or pray some Namaaz, and after this, he can do that (i.e. eat or sleep). [Alamgiri]

image

  1. Waqf refers to an Endowment for the sake of Allah.

  2. Mutawali here refers to a trustee of the Musjid.

  3. Masha’ikh refers to Pious Predecessors.

  4. Namaazi is the one who is performing his Namaaz.

  5. Musal’la refers to a prayer mat.

  6. Mu’takif is a person in I’tekaaf; i.e. one secluded to the Musjid for the remembrance of Allah.

It is common in almost all parts of India, that during the month of Ramadan people generally break their fast in the Musjid. If there is an area outside the Musjid where Iftar can be made, then Iftar should not be made inside the Musjid. Otherwise, one should make the intention of I’tekaaf on entering. There is no objection to making Iftar inside. However, one must still be fully cautious not to soil the mats or floors of the Musjid.

Law: The Musjid should not be made a pathway (road / walkway). For example, if there are two doors in the Musjid and one needs to go somewhere, and it is easier for him to enter from one door and exit (in that direction) through the other door, then one should not do this. If a person went in (i.e. into the Musjid) with the intention that he would enter through this door and then exit through the other door (i.e. he will use it as a walkway), and after entering he regretted this action of his, then he should not exit through the door from which he had intended to exit, but he should use another door. Some Ulama have stated that such a person should first pray Namaaz and then exit (the Musjid), and others have said that if he does not have wudu, then he should exit from the same door through which he entered. To enter the Musjid whilst wearing shoes is Makruh. [Alamgiri]

Law: Selling of Taweez in the Jaame Musjid is not permissible, like it is done by those who do this as a business and compel people to pay a stipulated price to get a taweez. [Alamgiri]

Law: To perform a Nikah ceremony in the Musjid is Mustahab (desirable). [Alamgiri]. However, one must be cautious not to cause any disturbance, din in the Musjid or do anything therein that is contrary to the sanctity of the Musjid. If one knows that the

etiquettes of the sanctity or the Musjid will be violated, then one should not have the Nikah in the Musjid.

Law: One who has any impurity on his clothing or body should not enter the Musjid. [Alamgiri]

Law: One must observe the following Etiquettes of the Musjid: (1) On entering the Musjid one should convey Salaam, on condition that those present inside are not engrossed in Zikr or in teaching. If there

is no one inside or if those inside are occupied, then say:

ْ

ﺎﻨ' 1ْ ﻠ' ﻋ

م' ﻼﺴ, ﻟﺍ'

O' '::ﺤ, ,ﻠﺼ, ﻟﺍ

,Aﻠ' ﻟﺍ

,دﺎﺒ',ﻋ

ul.ﻋ

و ﺎﻨ' ﺑ: ر

As Salaamu Alayna Mir Rab’bina Wa Ala

Ibaadil’laahis Saaliheen’. (2) If it is not within the Makruh time, pray two Raka’at Tahiyatul Musjid. (3) Do not buy or sell (i.e. do not do business transactions inside the Musjid). (4) Do not take an unsheathed sword inside the Musjid. (5) Do not look for a lost item in the Musjid. (6) Do not raise your voice except in Zikr (remembrance of Allah). (7) Do not discuss worldly issues in it. (8) Do not clamber over the necks of people. (9) Do not fight with anyone because of place. (10) Do not sit in a manner, which causes discomfort to others.

(11) Do not walk in front of a Namaazi. (12) Do not spit or cough out phlegm in the Musjid. (13) Do not snap your fingers in the Musjid. (14) Protect the Musjid from impurities, children (who have not reached the age of understanding), and insane people. (15) Make Zikr-e-Ilahi in abundance. [Alamgiri]

Law: If the Musjid is full, then the person who wishes to read his Namaaz can ask the person who is sitting to move aside and give him some space to read his Namaaz. This applies even if the person (sitting) is engrossed in (some form of) Zikr, he is teaching, or reciting the Qur’an, and even if he is a Mu’takif. [Alamgiri]

Law: To give money to one who begs inside the Musjid is not allowed. To have worldly discussions in the Musjid is Makruh. To talk in the Musjid, devours ones good deeds like fire eats up wood. This is the case when having a permissible conversation, so what can be said about the sin of impermissible conversations. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: After performing Namaaz, we fold up our Musal’las and keep them away. This is a good thing as it is an act that is more appropriate with regards to being cautious. However, some people only fold the corner of the Musal’la, and they say that by not doing so, shaitaan will read Namaaz on it. This is baseless!

Law: It is Makruh to climb onto the roof of the Musjid. To perform Jama’at on the roof of the Mosque because it is too hot is Makruh. However, if the Musjid is full due to an overflow of Namaazis, then one may read Namaaz on the roof of the Musjid, just as Jama’at takes place on the Musjid roofs in Bombay and Calcutta etc. due to a shortage of space. [Alamgiri]

Law: If a (Deeni) student used a straw from a mat in the Musjid as a marker in his book, it is excused. [Alamgiri]

However, this does not mean that he should break (or pull out) straw from a good mat and use it as a marker, because continuously doing this, will cause the (prayer) mat to be damaged.

Law: To make a ‘Hadf’, in other words to place a target in the direction of the Qibla and to fire arrows at it, or to shoot bullets towards it, is Makruh. In other words, target practice in the direction of Qibla is Makruh. [Raddul Muhtar]

Chapter 21

Etiquettes Of Visiting the Sick And Treatment (Of Ailments)

A few Ahadith pertaining to the virtues of visiting the sick have already been explained in the chapter on funerals in Bahaar-e- Shariat, Part 4. Ahadith regarding the virtues of visiting the sick are being presented here.

Hadith 1: In Sahih Bukhari it is narrated on the authority of Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Allah has not sent down any illness without sending down its cure’.

Hadith 2: It is in Sahih Muslim from Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘There is a medicine for every illness. When the medicine reaches the illness, it will be cured through the Command of Allah’.

Hadith 3: Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi and Abu Dawud have reported on the authority of Usama bin Shuraik ؓ that the people said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! Should we use medicine (i.e. should we take treatment for our illnesses)?’ He  said, ‘Yes O servants of Allah! Use medicine, because Allah has not sent a sickness, without setting Shifa (cure) for it, but for one sickness, which is old-age’.

Hadith 4: Abu Dawud reported from Abu Dardah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘illness and its medicine have both been sent down by Allah. He has set aside medicine for every illness, so you should use medication, but do not take treatment from Haraam (i.e. do not use that which is haraam as medicine).’

Hadith 5: Imam Ahmed, Abu Dawud, Tirmizi and Ibn Majah have reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah  forbade the use of impure medicines.

Hadith 6: Tirmizi and Ibn Majah reported on the authority of Uqba bin Aamir ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Do not force the sick to eat, for Allah sustains them’.

Hadith 7: Ibn Majah reported from Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘When a sick person wishes to eat something, then feed him’. This command applies at the time when he is really hungry.

Hadith 8: Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Umm-e-Munzir

bint Qais

ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر

who says, Rasoolullah  visited my home

together with Hazrat Ali ؓ. Hazrat Ali ؓ was feeling very weak. He had just recovered from an illness. Bunches of dates were hanging in the house. Huzoor-e-Akram  ate some dates from it. Hazrat Ali ؓ also intended to eat, (but) Huzoor  stopped him and said, ‘You are weak’. She says, ‘I cooked wheat and beetroot and presented it before them’. Huzoor  said to Hazrat Ali ؓ ‘Take some from this, as it is beneficial to you’.

It can be deduced from this Hadith that a sick person should take preventative measures. He should abstain from eating those things which are harmful to him.

Hadith 9: Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi and Abu Dawud have reported on the authority of Imraan bin Haseen and Ibn Majah has reported on the authority of Buraidah ﻢ,aﻨﻋ u ﺎﻌW ﷲﺍ u"'ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘There is no incantation (i.e. reading and blowing over someone) but for casting away the evil eye and for the bite of a poisonous creature. (In other words, it is most effective in both these cases)’.

Hadith 10: Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi and Ibn Majah reported on the authority of Asma bint Umais ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that she said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah

! The children of Ja’far ؓ are very easily afflicted by the evil eye. Should we perform any incantations (to ward away the evil eye)?’ He

 said, ‘Yes, for if there was anything that was to surpass Taqdeer then it would have been the evil eye, which would have surpassed it’.

Hadith 11: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  commanded incantation for casting away the evil eye.

Hadith 12: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of

Hazrat Umm-e-Salma ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر who says that there was a girl living

in her house, whose face was yellowish. Rasoolullah  said, ‘Do an incantation for her, as she has been afflicted by an evil eye’.

Hadith 13: It is in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Hazrat Jaabir

ؓ that the Prophet  forbade incantations. The family of Amr bin Hazm came forth and said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah  but we possess an incantation for the sting of a scorpion’, and they presented this before Rasoolullah . He  said, ‘There is no objection to this. One, who can benefit his brother, should assist him’.

Hadith 14: It is in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Auf bin Maalik Ashja’i ؓ. He says, ‘We practiced incantation in the pre-Islamic days and we said Ya Rasool’Allah ! What do you command regarding this?’ He  said, ‘Present your incantation before me’. (He  then said), ‘There is no harm in the incantation for as long as it does not contain any ‘Shirk’ (polytheism) in it’ (i.e. for as long as it does not contain any polytheistic elements).

Hadith 15: It is in Sahih Bukhari on the authority of Abu Hurairah

ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘neither is there Adwa1, nor any bad omen, nor is there any Hamah2 and nor Safar3, and one should flee

from a leper as you flee from a lion’. It is mentioned in another narration that a Bedouin said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! How is it that a camel is like a deer (pure and clean) when it is in the desert and when a camel afflicted with the scab mixes with it, it also becomes afflicted with the scab?’

Rasoolullah  said, ‘Who infected the first one with the illness?’ In other words just as the first camel was afflicted by the scab, so was the second. It is incorrect to say that an illness is transmittable (by itself), and the command to stay away (flee) from a leper falls under the category of it being a means of hindrance, because if by associating with him, another person gets leprosy, then one will feel that this happened due to association with such a person. We have been commanded to stay away from him, to prevent us from having such an incorrect perception.

Hadith 16: It is in Bukhari and Muslim from Hazrat Abu Hurairah

ؓ. He says, ‘I heard Rasoolullah  saying, ‘There is no bad omen (i.e. bad omen from birds) and the best omen is the Faal’. People asked ‘What is a Faal?’ He  said, ‘A good word that you hear from someone’ (i.e. and he takes it as a good omen).’

image

Cont…. from last pg

  1. Neither is there Adwa here means that there is no transmitive disease that is passed without the Will of Allah.

  2. Hamah here refers to an owl. In the days of ignorance, the people of Arabia, held many views regarding an owl, and even today some people regarded it as being ill-omened. Whatever the case may be, the Hadith has clarified, that there is no credibility to this.

  3. No Hamah or Safar here refers to bad omen especially in the month of Safar. People regarded Safar as being ill-omened. It has been mentioned in the Hadith that there is no basis for this.

In other words, if when going somewhere or when about to do something, someone says some good words to you, this is taken as a good omen.

Hadith 17: It is in Abu Dawud and Tirmizi on the authority of Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Tiyara (Bad-Omen) is polytheism’, and he said this thrice. Whosoever is from amongst us, should walk away, having complete trust in Allah.

Hadith 18: Tirmizi has reported on the authority of Anas ؓ that when the Prophet  would go out for any reason, he would be pleased to hear (the words) ‘Ya Raashid’ and ‘Ya Najih’. In other words, if anyone addressed someone by these names, the Prophet  would become pleased by it, as this is a good omen of success and salvation.

Hadith 19: Abu Dawud reported from Buraydah ؓ that Nabi Kareem  did not take bad omens from anything, but when he sent out an Aamil (agent or collector) he would ask about his name. If his name pleased him, he would be glad with it, and Huzoor’s  cheerfulness was visible in his face and if he disliked his name, his displeasure was noticeable in his face. This Hadith does not mean that he used to take bad omens from names, but the reality is that Huzoor  used to be pleased with good names and displeased with bad names.

Hadith 20: Abu Dawud reported (Mursalan) from Urwah ibn Amir

ؓ that when taking a bad omen was mentioned in his presence, Rasoolullah  said, ‘Faal (Omen) is good, and a bad omen should not cause a Muslim to turn back.’ In other words, if one was going out somewhere and a bad omen occurred, he should not return, but rather he should continue (to where he was going). When a person

sees anything which he does not like, in other words (if he notices) a bad omen, he should say:

ﺕﺎ ﻴ ﺴ ﻟﺍ ﻊ

ْ

ﻻ و

ْﻧ

ﺍ ﺕ

ﺎﻨ ْ

ﻟﺎ ْ ﺎ ﻻ

ﻠﻟ

ﷲﺎ ﺍ ة ﻮ ﻗ

ﻻ و

لﻮْ

ﻻ و

ْﻧ

Allahumma La Yaati Bil Hasanaati il’la Anta wa La Yadfa’us Say’yi’aati il’la Anta Wa La Hawla Wa La Quw’wata il’la bil’laahi’

Hadith 21: It is reported in Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Usama bin Zaid ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘If you hear of plague in a land then do not go there. If plague should appear in a place where you are present, then do not leave that place in order to run away from it’.

Hadith 22: It has been reported in Sahih Muslim from Usama bin

Zaid

ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر

that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Plague is the sign of

punishment. Allah caused some people from His servants to be afflicted by it. So when you hear about it occurring somewhere, do not enter there, and when it breaks out in a land wherein you are present, then do not run away from it’.

Hadith 23: Imam Ahmed and Bukhari have reported on the authority of A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Plague was a punishment which Allah sends against whomever He Wills. Allah has made it a mercy for the believers. One who remains steadfast with patience in a land infected by plague, hoping for reward and knowing that only that which Allah has written for him will befall him, then he shall attain the reward equivalent to that of the martyr.’

Hadith 24: Imam Bukhari, Muslim and Ahmed have reported on the authority of A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘(Death from) plague is martyrdom) for every Muslim.’

Laws of Jurisprudence

Law: It is Sunnat to visit the sick. If one knows that by visiting him, the sick person will feel uncomfortable, then in such a condition, one should not make Iyaadat1. If one goes to visit a sick person and finds his illness to be intense, then this should not be disclosed before him. Neither should he be told that his illness is serious and nor should one nod the head implying that the illness is serious in nature. Such words should be spoken to him, which will cause contentment and give tranquillity to his heart. Ask how he is feeling. Do not keep your hand on his head, until he himself wishes for you to do so. To visit a fasiq is also permissible as visiting the sick is from amongst the Islamic Rights and a ‘fasiq’ is also a Muslim. To visit a sick Jew or Christian, who is a Zimmi2, is also permissible. [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]. There is a difference of opinion amongst the Ulama, regarding whether one should visit a ‘majoosi’3 or not. In other words, this is when he is a ‘Zimmi’. [Inaaya]

The ruling regarding the Hindus (idol-worshippers) is the same as that which applies to the ‘majoosi’. The laws regarding them are not the same as that which are applicable to the Ahl-e-Kitaab. None of the Jews, Christians, fire-worshippers, idol-worshippers of India are regarded as being ‘zimmi’.

image

  1. Iyaadat here refers to visiting a sick person.

  2. Zimmi refers to a non-Muslim citizen of an Islamic State.

  3. Majoosi refers to a pagan or to a fire-worshipper.

Law: Treatment by means of medication is permissible, as long as one has the firm belief that the One who grants Shifa (cure) is Allah. He has made medicines a means for the removal of illnesses. If one regards the medicine alone to be the one that gives cure, then this is impermissible. [Alamgiri]

Law: To use any part (i.e. organ etc.) of a human as medicine is Haraam. To use the hair, bones or any other part of a pig (swine) in medicine is Haraam. The bones of other animals can be used in medicine, on condition that they are from Zabiha1 or they (the bones) are (completely) dry, meaning that there is no moisture (wetness) present in them. If the bones are to be used in a medicine that will be eaten (i.e. consumed), then it is necessary that such bones are from animals which are Halaal to eat, and such an animal was also slaughtered in accordance with the laws of Shariah. The bones of the carrion cannot be used in medicines that are to be consumed. [Alamgiri]

Law: To make use of Haraam things for medicinal purposes is also impermissible, for it has been mentioned in the Hadith that Allah ta’aala has not kept cure in those things which are Haraam. It has been mentioned in certain Kitaabs that if one has knowledge that there is cure only in that particular thing, then in such a case, that thing will not be classified as being Haraam. The result of this is also the same (i.e. it is still regarded as impermissible), because one can never have complete conviction that the illness will definitely go away by using it. The most, is that one can have a presumption or supposition (regarding it), but one cannot be certain (that it will cure the illness). Even the rules and principals of Ilm-e-Tibb2 are

image

  1. Zabiha, is an animal slaughtered in accordance with the laws of Shariah.

  2. Ilm-e-Tibb here refers to the Study of Medicines.

conjectural, so there is no way of being completely certain. Here, even such a level of certainty is not present in comparison to the level of certainty in the situation where a starving person may eat a morsel of Haraam, or thirsty person may drink alcohol to save their life. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]. Most Western medicines are such that they contain mixtures of spirits and alcohol. Such medicines should never be used.

Law: If a Tabeeb1 diagnoses during an illness, that the blood is too much and the blood needs to be released by means of phlebotomy etc. and the patient did not comply with this and died, then he will not be regarded as sinful for not taking the treatment, because there is no certainty that the illness will be cured by means of the said treatment. [Khania]

Law: If a person has diarrhoea, eye infection or any other illness and he does not take treatment for it and dies due to it, he will not be regarded as being sinful (due to this). [Alamgiri] In other words, to have it treated is not necessary, whereby if he does not take the treatment and then dies, he may be regarded as being sinful, whereas in the situation of intense hunger and thirst, when there is something available to eat or drink and one does not eat or drink and then dies, then he is regarded as being sinful, for in this case he knows with certainty that by eating and drinking this situation will be alleviated.

Law: If a woman is pregnant, she should neither have phlebotomy nor should she do cupping for as long as the baby does not start moving in the womb, and when (her pregnancy reaches the stage) where the baby starts to move, then she is allowed to have

image

1. Tabeeb here refers to a reliable Muslim Doctor.

phlebotomy etc., but when the time of giving birth comes close, then she should again not do this, as there is a risk of this harming the baby. However, if the situation is such, that by the woman not having phlebotomy, she will be at risk or harm, then it should be done. [Alamgiri]

Law: Scarification1 should not be done from the 1st to the 15th of the (Lunar) month. Cupping should be done after the 15th, and the best day to do cupping is on a Saturday. [Alamgiri]

Law: To use alcohol for external treatment is also disallowed. For example, if alcohol is used on a wound, or it is on the wound of a wounded animal or alcohol was used in the treatment of a child. In all these situations, the one who applied it will be sinful. [Alamgiri]

Law: There is a type of abscess that appears on the finger and it is treated in a manner whereby the gallbladder of an animal is wrapped on the infected finger. The Fatwa is that to do this is permissible. [Alamgiri]

Law: In certain cases of swelling and inflammation it is permissible to tie dough (from flour) on it, or a paste is cooked and tied on it, or raw or cooked bread is tied on it. [Alamgiri]

Law: There is no objection to administering a Huqna2 for the purpose of medicinal treatment, as long as it is not of any Haraam substance, such as alcohol. [Hidaya]

image

  1. Scarification here refers to cupping or Blood-Letting.

  2. Huqna refers to an enema. An enema or clyster is the procedure of introducing liquids into the rectum and colon via the anus. It is used as a treatment method for constipation etc. It is also used in alternative medicine as a treatment for constipation and other stomach ailments as well and is known as ‘colonic irrigation’.

Law: In some illnesses, the patient has to be rendered unconscious, so that the flesh etc. may be cut (i.e. to perform an operation), or to join a bone or to stitch a wound. Due to this need, it is permissible to render the patient unconscious by use of medicine. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: Sometimes when administering the enema, a need arises to look at the particular area or to touch it. It is permissible to do this due to necessity. [Zail’i]

Law: To use any medication to bring on an abortion or to have a mid-wife (etc.) perform an abortion is disallowed. This is in both cases, either if the baby has already formed or not. The ruling regarding both is the same. However, if there is an Uzr 1 such as if the woman has an infant (still being suckled) and the father does not have sufficient money to employ a wet-nurse (to feed the child), or if there is no wet-nurse and the pregnancy will cause the milk to dry up and there is a risk of the child dying, then in such a (dire) circumstance, the pregnancy may be aborted, on condition that the limbs have not formed as yet, and the duration for this is 120 days. [Raddul Muhtar]

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1. Uzr here refers to a valid reason in which is sanctioned by the Shariah.

Chapter 22

Explanation Regarding Amusement & Games (i.e. Entertainment)

Allah says

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“And amongst them, there are some who purchase amusement, to delude others from the path of Allah, without perceiving, and to ridicule it. For them, there is a humiliating punishment” [Surah 31 Verse 6]

Hadith 1: Tirmizi, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah have reported from Uqba bin Aamir ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Everything with which a person plays is futile, except shooting arrows from a bow, training his horse, and his activity with his wife, for these 3 are true (i.e. proper)’.

Hadith 2: Imam Ahmed, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Ibn-e-Majah have reported from Buraidah ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘He who plays the dice (backgammon), is as if he has thrust his hands into the flesh and blood of a swine’. It is mentioned in another narration from Abu Musa ؓ that, he has disobeyed Allah and His Rasool .

Hadith 3: Imam Ahmed reported on the authority of Abdur Rahmaan Khatmi ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘The example of the one who plays dice (backgammon) and then stands up for Namaaz, is like a person who performs ablution (wudu) with pus and blood, and then stands up to pray Namaaz’.

Hadith 4: Dailmi reported from of Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  said, ‘The companions of the king (Chess players) are in jahan’num (hell), who says that, I have executed your King’. Here,

the chess players are being referred to, who check the King (in chess) and then (play the) check mate’.

Hadith 5: Baihaqi has reported from Hazrat Ali ؓ that he said, ‘Chess is the gambling (i.e. game) of the non-Arabs (westerners)’, and Shihaab has reported on the authority of Abu Musa Ash’ari ؓ that he said, ‘Only a wrongdoer will play chess’. There is also another narration reported from him where it is said that ‘It is Baatil1 and Allah loves not that which is baatil.’

Hadith 6: Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah have reported from Abu Hurairah ؓ and Ibn Majah reported from Anas and Hazrat Uthman ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  saw a person pursuing a female pigeon. He  said, ‘shaitaan is pursuing a shaitaana’.

Hadith 7: Tirmizi reported from of Ibn Ab’bas ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that Rasoolullah  forbade the fighting of animals (quadruped).

Hadith 8: Bazzar reported from Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘There are two sounds which are cursed in this world and in the hereafter; the sound of musical instruments during chanting and the sound of wailing at the time of a calamity’.

Hadith 9: Baihaqi reported on the authority of Jaabir ؓ that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Singing sprouts hypocrisy in the heart, just as water causes the fields to vegetate’.

Hadith 10: Tabrani reported from Ibn Umar ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر that the Prophet  forbade singing and listening to songs, (he forbade us) from backbiting and listening to backbiting, and from tale-bearing and from listening to tale-bearing.

Hadith 11: Baihaqi reported from Ibn Ab’bas

ﺎﻤ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر

that

Rasoolullah  said that Allah has made alcohol, gambling and drums Haraam, and he  said, ‘Every intoxicant is Haraam’.

Hadith 12: Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Hazrat A’isha

ﺎ ﻨﻋ

ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ

ر. She says, ‘I used to play with dolls and sometimes

Rasoolullah  would come in at a time when other girls were with me. When Huzoor  would arrive, the girls would leave and when Huzoor  would leave, the girls would return’.

Hadith 13: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Hazrat A’isha

ﺎ,aﻨﻋ

u ﺎﻌW

ﷲﺍ u"'ر

says, ‘I used to play with dolls at the home of

Rasoolullah  and a few other girls used to play with me as well. They would hide away when Huzoor  arrived. Huzoor  used to send them to me and they would then return to play with me’.

Hadith 14: Abu Dawud reports from Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر who says that Rasoolullah  returned from either Ghazwa-e-Tabuk or Khaibar and there were dolls kept in her shelf, and there was a curtain over them. A gust of wind blew and one end of the curtain

moved, causing Hazrat A’isha’s ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر dolls to become visible.

Huzoor  asked, ‘A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر! What is this? She said that they were her dolls. Amongst the dolls there was also a horse made from fabric, which had two wings. Huzoor  pointed towards the horse and asked, ‘What is that amongst the dolls?’ She replied that it was a horse. He asked, ‘What is this on the horse?’ She replied that they were the horse’s wings. He  said, ‘Wings for a horse!’ Hazrat A’isha ﺎ ﻨﻋ ﺎﻌ ﷲﺍ ر replied, ‘Have you not heard, that the horses of Hazrat Sulaiman &,; had wings.’ On hearing this, Huzoor  smiled.

image

1. Baatil here refers to that which is futile and a complete waste of time.

Laws of Jurisprudence

Law: If the beating of drums is for show (entertainment), it is impermissible but if the aim is to warn people and to get them to think of the sound of the Soor1, then there are 3 instances where it is permissible to beat the drums; after Asr, After Esha and after half the night has passed, as during these times, beating of the drum resembles the sound of the ‘Soor’. [Durr-e-Mukhtar] This intention is a very good one, only if the ones who have this drum beaten realise this and how nice it would have been if those who listen to it would also remember the sound of the ‘Soor’. However, in this era, where can we find such people? (Nowadays), the aim of the drum-beating is for pomp and show, and for the purpose of adding pomp and adornment to marriage festivities.

Law: It is permissible to beat the duff on the day of Eid and in weddings, as long as it is a plain and simple duff. It should not have any musical properties and should not be beaten in a musical manner. In other words, it should be an un-musical drumming, the aim of which is to announce the Nikah or Eid. [Raddul Muhtar, Alamgiri]

Law: To blow the bugle with the intention of waking people up and to warn them is permissible, just as the bugle is blown at public baths with the aim of making the people aware that the public bath has opened. In some cities during the month of Ramadan, drums are beaten with the aim of waking people to partake in Sehri and so that they may know that there is still time left for Sehri. This is permissible, as this case is not related to Lahw wa la’ib2. [Durr-e- Mukhtar]

image

  1. The Soor is the horn-like object which will be blown when Qiyaamat comes.

  2. Lahw wa la’ib refers to amusement and futile activities.

Similarly, whistles are blown at factories to announce that the work time has commenced or ended. This too is permissible because the aim here is not amusement (entertainment), but this whistle is blown as an announcement. Similarly, the whistle in the train has the same objective. In other words, it is sounded so that the people become aware that the train is about to depart. The whistle is also sounded for other proper reasons. This too is permissible.

Law: To play cards and dice is impermissible. The same ruling applies to chess. Similarly, all categories of amusement and games are regarded as futile. Only three types have been permitted in the Hadith; activity with ones wife, riding (training) a horse and archery. [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.]

Law: Dancing, clapping hands, playing the sitar1, the one string guitar, the two stringed guitar, the harmonium, the harp, the tambourine and to play all like type musical instruments are impermissible. [Raddul Muhtar]

Law: The (supposed) mystics of today listen to Qawali with musical instruments sometimes leaping up and down, and dancing around. Listening to singing with music in this manner is not permissible, nor is attending such gatherings. There is no evidence of this type of singing from the Masha’ikh. That which is evident from the Masha’ikh is simply this, if someone rendered a stanza that was appropriate in their condition and spiritual state, they would be saturated by a deep spiritual ecstasy. Weeping, they would stand up making involuntary gestures.

image

1. A sitar is a 3 stringed guitar.

To this, there is no objection. There is a clear distinction between this deep spiritual state of the Blessed Religious Personalities (i.e. the Awliyah Allah) and that of the supposed mystics of today. However, todays’ Mehfils (gatherings) are filled with sinful and immoral people. Most of the singers do not conform to the preconditions of Shariah. They sing whilst clapping hands, playing musical instruments, leaping and jumping around immensely, to the extent of dancing and strutting. This they refer to as ‘Haal’. What do such actions have in common with the true spiritual conditions of the Great Sufis! (The true ecstasy of the Awliyah are involuntary gestures whilst) as of todays mehfils everything is within their control!1 [Alamgiri]

Law: If one breeds pigeons without the intention of flying them (i.e. racing them), then breeding them is permissible, and if the aim is to fly them, it is impermissible, as this too is regarded as a type of futile sport. If one has to climb onto rooftops to fly the pigeons and this causes the privacy of others to be evaded, or if one throws stones when flying the pigeons, wherein there is a risk of people’s crockery etc. breaking, then such a person will be strictly asked to stop doing so and if he still does not take heed, then his pigeons will be made Zibah (slaughtered) on behalf of the authorities and then returned to him, so that his action of flying (pigeons) is terminated altogether. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: There are people who hold animal fights between roosters, quail, partridge, rams and buffalo etc. This is Haraam and to participate in it or to be an audience to this spectacle is also impermissible.

image

1. However, despite this manner being regarded impermissible, it certainly does not render one out o f Islam. To say or believe this is incorrect.

Law: During the opening of the mango season, young boys go into the orchards, and after this, they play with the peels and pip (of the mangoes). There is no objection to this. [Alamgiri]

Law: If wrestling is not in the sense of futile play and game, but it is done with the intention of building physical strength and so that it will enable one to fight the kufaar, it is permissible and ‘Mustahsan’ (commendable) and a means of attaining sawaab (reward). On condition, that the compulsory parts that need to be covered in the Shariah are not exposed in any way. Nowadays, wrestling is done almost naked, simply wearing a loin cloth or short pants (and wrestling breeches etc.), causing the thighs to be exposed. This is impermissible. Huzoor-e-Akram  wrestled Rukana and pinned him thrice, because Rukana said, ‘If you pin me down, I will accept Islam’, and thereafter, he became a Muslim. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar]

Law: If there are no obscenities, unpleasant talk, and abusive language, or if no harm is intended towards any Muslim, and if it is only a pleasant and heart pleasing discussion, then there is no harm in engaging in humorous conversation that brings joy and happiness to those sitting together. [Alamgiri]

Chapter 23

Explanation Regarding Verses Of Poetry

Almighty Allah says

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