Brinjal Health Benefits | Vegetables | Health Benefits Vitamins, Nutrients, Fiber – Page 1
Description Brinjal, or aubergine as it is called in France, is a vegetable long prized for its beauty as well as its unique taste and texture Brinjals belong to the plant family of Solanaceae also commonly known as nightshades and are kin to the tomato, bell pepper, and potato. Brinjals grow in a manner much like tomatoes, hanging from ave vines of a plant that grow several feet in height. While the different varieties do range slightly in taste and texture, one can generally describe the brinjal as having a pleasantly bitter taste and ts of ile l ce sts x- a- ns he d a
Presented by Abdullah Qadr spongy texture. History The ancient ancestors of brinjal grew wild in India and were first cultivated in China in the 5th century B.C. Brinjal was introduced to Africa before the Middle Ages and then into r Italy, the country with which it has long been associated, in the 14th century. It subsequently s spread throughout Eu rope and the Middle East and, centuries later was brought to the Western n Hemisphere by European explorers. Today, Italy Turkey, Egypt, China, and d Japan are the leading
BRINJAL growers of brinjal Although it has a long and rich history, brinjal did not always hold the revered place in food culture than it does today, especially in European cuisines. As a result of the overly bitter taste of the early varieties, it seems that people also felt that it had a bitter disposition-brinjal held the underserved and inauspicious reputation of being able to cause insanity, leprosy, and cancer; For centuries after its introduction into Europe brinjal was used more as a decorative garden plant than as a food. Not until new varieties were devel-
oped in the 18th century did brinjal lose its bitter taste and bitter reputation, and take its now esteemed place in the cuisines of many European countries, including Italy Greece, Turkey, and France. Health Benefits In addition to featuring a host of vitamins and minerals, brinjal also contains important phytonutrients many which have antioxidant Phytonutrients contained in brinjal include phenolic compounds, such caffeic and chlorogenic acid, and flavonoids, such as nasunin.
activity Brain Food Research on brinjal has focused on an anthocyanin phytonutrient found in brinjal skin called nasunin. Nasunin is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger that has been shown to protect cell membranes from damage. In animal studies, nasunin has been found to protect the lipids (fats) in brain cell membranes. Cell membranes are almost entirely composed of lipids and are responsible for protecting the cell from free radicals
letting nutrients in and wastes out, and receiving instructions from messenger molecules that tell the cell which activities it Y should perform Rich in Phenolic Antioxidant Compounds Researchers at the US Agricultural Service in Beltsville, Maryland have found that brinjals are rich sources of phenolic compounds that function as antioxidants. Plants form such compounds to protect themselves against oxidative stress from exposure to the elements, as well as from infection by bacteria and fungi The good news concerning brinjal is that the predominant phenolic compound found in all variety es tested is chlorogenic acid, which is one of the most potent free radical scavengers found in plant issues. Benefits attributed to chlorogenic aciclenticancon), anti micro al, goi LDL (Dad Scholes barrel) and antiviral acovi (ais
seven brinjal cultivars are grown commercially in the U.S. and a diverse collection of exotic and will brinjals from other counties. In addition to chlorogenic acid, they found 13 other phenolic acids present at significantly varying levels in the commercial cultivars, although chlorogenic acid was the predominant phenolic compound in all of
as them. In addition to their nutritive potential, the phenolic acids in brinjal are responsible for some brinjals’ bitter taste and the growing that results when their flesh is cut. An enzyme called polyphenol oxidase triggers a phenolic reaction that produces brown pigments. Cardiovascular Health and Free Radical Protection When laboratory animals with high cholesterol were given brinjal juice, their blood cholesterol, the cholesterol In their artery walls and the cholesterol in their aortas (the aorta is the artery that returns blood from the heart back into circulation into the body) was significantly reduced, while the walls of their blood vessel’s relaxed, improving food flow. These positives ware likely c not only to rasuninbutto several other te phytonutrients in Nasunin is not only o s- tent free radical stager but is also an ironchuuteetrsit et elator.
Although Iron is sin essential nutrient and s necessary for oxygen transport, normal immune function and collagen synthesis, too much iron is Premium 25 years of continued
not a good thing. Excess iron increases free radical production and is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and cancer. Menstruating women, who lose iron every month in their menstrual flow, are unlikely to be at risk, but in postmenopausal women and men, iron, which is not easily excreted, can accumulate By chelating iron, nasunin lessens free radical formation with numerous beneficial results, including protecting blood cholesterol (which is also a type of lipid or fat) from peroxidation; preventing cellular damage and lessening free radical that can promote cancer damage in joints, which is a primary factor in rheumatoid arthritis. How to Select and Store Choose brinjals that are firm and heavy for their size. Their skin should be smooth and shiny, and their color, whether it be purple, white or green should be vivid. They should be free of discoloration, scars, and bruises which usually Indicate that the flesh beneath has become damaged and possibly decayed. The stem and cap, on either end of the brinjal Weaker Section
Vegetables | Health Benefits Vitamins, Nutrients, Fiber – Page 3
4,9 should be bright green in color. As you would with other fruits and vegetables, avoid purchasing brinjal that has been waxed. To test for the ripeness of brinjal, gently press the skin with the pad of your thumb. If it springs back, the brinjal is ripe while if an indentation remains, it is not.
When cutting brinjal, use a stainless steel knife as carbon steel will react with its phytonutrients and cause it to turn black. Wash the brinjal first and then cut off the ends. To tenderize the flesh’s texture and reduce some of its naturally occurring bitter taste, you can sweat the brinjal by salting it. After cutting the brinjal into the desired size and shape, sprinkle it with salt and allow it to rest for about 30 minutes.
This process will pull out some of its water content and make it less permeable to absorbing any oil used in cooking Rinsing the brinjal after sweating” will remove most of the salt Brinjal can be baked roasted in the oven or steamed. If baking it whole pierce the brinjal several times with a fork to make small holes for the steam to escape. ***
BP Pr Description Onions may bring a tear to your eye, and pungency to your breath, but they will most certainly bring delight to your tastebuds. The onion, known scientifically as Allium cepa, is, on the surface, a humble brown, white or red, paper-thin skinned bulb; yet, despite its plain looks, has an intense flavor and is a beloved part of the cuisine of almost every region of the world. The word onion comes from the Latin word unio for “single,” or one,” because the onion plant produces a single bulb, unlike its cousin, the
Presented by Abdullah Qadr garlic, that produces many small bulbs. The name also describes the onion bulb when cut down the middle; it is a union (also from the union) of many separate, concentrically arranged layers. History Onions are native to Asia and the Middle East and have been cultivated for over five thousand years Onions were high re, guarded by the Egyptians Not only did they use them as currency to pay the workers who built the pyramids, but they also placed them in the tombs of kings, such as
RI Tutankhamen, so that they could carry these gifts bestowed with spiritual significance with them to the afterlife. Onions have been revered throughout time not only for their culinary use but also for their therapeutic properties. As early as the 6th century, onions were used as a medicine in India. While they were popular with the ancient Greeks and Romans they were oftentimes dressed with the extra seasonings since many people did not find them spicy enough. Yet, it was their pungency that made onions popular among ****
poor people throughout the world who could freely use this inexpensive vegetable to spark up their meals. Onions were an indispensable vegetable in the cuisines of many European countries during the Middle Ages and later even served as a classic healthy breakfast food. Christopher Colum bus brought onions to the West Indies; their cultivation spread from there throughout the Western Hemisphere.
Today China, India, the United States, Russian and Spain are among the leading producers of one. Health Benefits Onions, like garlic, are members of the Allium family, and both are rich in powerful sulfur-containing compounds that are responsible for their pungent odors and for many of their health-promoting effects. Onions contain allyl propyl disulfide while garlic is rich in allicin, diallyl disulfide diaiiyioufide, and others. In addition, onions are very rich in chromium a trace mineral that helps cells respond to insulin plus vitamin C, and numerous flavonoids, most notably, quercitin Blood Sugar-Lowering Effects The higher the intake of onion, the lower the level of glucose found during oral or intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that allyl propyl disulfide is responsible for this effect and lowers blood sugar levels by increasing the amount of free Insulin available. Allyl propyl disulfide does this by competing with insulin, which is also a disulfide, to occupy the sites in the liver where insulin is inactivated. This result is an increase in the amount of insulin available to usher glucose into cells causing a lowering of blood sugar In addition, onions are a very good source of chromium, the mineral component in glucose tolerance factor, a molecule that helps cells respond appropriately to insulin. Clini cal studies of diabetics have shown that chromium can decrease fasting blood glucose levels improve glucose tolerance, lower insulin levels and decrease total cholesterol and triglyceride levels while increasing UST 2009 152 DIVINE
good HDL-cholesterol levels. One cup of raw onion contains over 20 of the Daily Value for this important trace mineral. Cardiovascular Benefits The regular consumption of onions has, like garlic been shown to lower high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure, both of which help prevent atherosclerosis and diabetic heart disease, and re. duce the risk of heart attack or stroke. These beneficial effects are likely due to onions’ suffur compounds, its chr mium and its vitamin B which helps prevent heart disease by lowering hi homocysteine levels, another significant risk far tor for heart attack and stroke Onions have been singled out as one of the small numbers of vegetables and fruits that contributed to the significant reduction in heart disease risk seen in a meta-analysis of seven prospective studies. Of the more than 100,000 individuals who participated in these studies, those who diet most frequently included onions, tea. apples and broccoli-the ATH
richest sources of flavonoids – gained a 20 % re-auction in their risk of heart disease. Support Gastrointestinal Health The regular consumption of onions, as little as two or more times per week is associated with a significantly reduced risk of developing colon cancer. Onions contain a number of flavonoids, the most studied of which, quercetin, has been shown to halt the growth of tumors in animals and to protect colon cells from the damaging effects of certain cancer-causing substances. Cooking meats with onions may help reduce the amount of car- cinogens produced when
meat is cooked using high heat methods Quercitin, an antioxidant in onions, and curcumin a phytonutrient (found in the curry spice turmeric, reduce both the size and number of precancerous losions In the human intestinal tract, suggests research published in Clinical Gasteroentero logy and Hepatology Onion and Garlic Protective against Many Cancers Making onion and garlic a staple in your healthy way of eating may greatly lower your risk of several common cancers, suggests a large data set of case-control studies from Southern European populations (Galeone C Pelucchi C et al, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition) Study participants consuming the most onions showed an 84 % reduced risk for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, 88 % reduced risk for esophageal cancer, 56 % reduced risk for colorectal cancer, 83 % reduced risk for laryngeal cancer, 25 % reduced DIVINE P GUST 2009153