A Brief Biography of Hazrat Abu Bakr
Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq
AMEER-UL-MU’MINEEN SAYYIDUNA R ABUBAKR AS-SIDDEEQ
The Khilafah (Caliphate) Of Abu Bakr
After the demise of the Master of all creation, Sayyiduna Muhammad, the question arose as to who would be appointed as his successor. In the famous Hadeeth collection, Al-Bayhaqi, Sayyiduna Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri narrates that the Companions gathered in the house of Sayyiduna Sa’d Ibn Obadiah. Present in this gathering was Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and Sayyiduna Omar as well as many other prolific Companions.
One of the Ansaar (original residents of Al-Madinah) stood and addressed the Muhajiroon (the companions who migrated to Al-Madinah) – “O Muhajiroon! You are aware that whenever Sayyiduna Rasoolullah would appoint a person to carry out a duty , he would appoint an Ansaari with a Muhaajir. Therefore it is our desire that one person from the Ansaar be appointed as the Khalifah whilst another from the Muhajiroon should accompany him. ” Another Companion from the Ansaar arose and delivered a similar sermon.
Sayyiduna Zaid Ibn Thaabit stood and questioned them, “Do you not know that Allah’s Messenger was a Muhaajir? Thus his successor shall also be a Muhaajir. Just as we were the assistants and supporters of the best of creation, we shall now support and assist the Khalifah of Rasoolullah. ” After saying this, he grabbed the hand of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and gave the pledge of allegiance (Bay’ah) to him. After Zaid Ibn Thaabit, Sayyiduna Omar pledged allegiance to Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and thereafter all the Ansaar and Muhajiroon.
Sayyiduna Abu Bakr then sat upon the pulpit and assessed the crowd, He noticel that Sayyiduna Zubair was not present amongst the crowd. I have requested that Sayyiduna Zubair be invited. When Sayyiduna Zubair arrived, Sayyiduo Abu Bakr said to him, “O Zubair! You are the son of the Messenger o6 Allah’s paternal aunt and a close companion of the Messenger and therefore I hope that you will not create division amongst the Muslims.” Sayyiduna Zubair said, “O Khalifah of Allah’s beloved, you needn’t worry” and thereafter he stood and pledged allegiance to Sayyiduna Abu Bakr.
Sayyiduna Abu Bakr also noticed that Sayyiduna Ali was not present in the gathering. I have requested that Sayyiduna Ali also be invited. When Sayyiduna Ali attended the gathering, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr said, “O son of Abi Taalib! You are the cousin of the Messenger and it is my hope that you will join me in protecting Islam from weakness. In the same manner, as Sayyiduna Zubair, Sayyiduna Ali said, “O Khalifah of Allah’s Messenger, you needn’t worry” and he also gave his hand in allegiance to Sayyiduna Abu Bakr.
It is also mentioned in Madaarij-un-Nubuwwah that Sayyiduna Ali said to Sayyiduna Abu Bakr,
“The Messenger of Allah has preferred you and put you forward.Therefore, who can obstruct you? “
Sayyiduna Ali was referring to the time of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah’s ailment when he appointed Sayyiduna Abu Bakr e as the Imam of all the Companions. Ibn Zam’ah states in a Hadeeth that the Messenger of Allah commanded that the people perform Salaah behind Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, At the time of this command, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr wasn’t present and therefore Sayyiduna Omar advanced to lead the prayers but Allah’s Messenger objected by saying
“No. No! No! Allah and the Muslims are pleased with Abu Bakr alone and therefore be will lead the Prayers.” (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 23)
Thus Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was appointed as the Khalifah with consensus and no one had any objection to his selection from him. The prophecy of The Messenger & A that the believers and Allah wouldn’t accept anyone other than Abu Bakr 2 as the Khalifah was fulfilled.
Qur’anic Ayahs In Relation To His Khilafah
Some scholars have interpreted the following ayah to be proof of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr’s Khilafah –
“O, believers! Whosocver amongst you will turn back from his religion, and then soon Allah shall bring such pcople that they will be dear to Allah and Allah will be dear to them. Humble towards the Muslims and stern towards the infidels. They will fight in the way of Allah and they will not fear the reproach of any reproacher. ‘ (Surah 5:54)
Some scholars of exegesis (Tafseer) have interpreted the nation that is being described in this ayah to be Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and his followers 2. This is due to the fact that some Arabs renounced Islam after the demise of the Messenger and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and his followers struggled against these apostates and once again brought them within the folds of Islam. Sayyiduna Abu Qatadah narrates that upon the demise of the Messenger, some Arabs became apostates and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr fought with them. At that time it was the opinion of many that the aforementioned Ayah was revealed in the praise of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and tie followers.
“Say to the desert Arabs who lagged behind,” Soon you slhall be summoned to fight against a people of severe fighting that you shall become Muslims. “(Surah 48:16)
Sadr-ul-Afaadhil, Maulana Na’eem-ud- Deen Al-Moradabadi interpreted this ayah to mean Sayyiduna Abu Bakr’s nation as they fought Musailmah Kadhaab’s people. In At-Tībraani Imam Az-Zuhri also narrated this. Thus Sayyiduna Ibn Abi Haatim and Ibn Qutaibah state that this ayah is evidence of Sayyiduna Abu Bak’s evidence of Sayyiduna’s Khilafah as he was the one who quarrelled with the apostates. Shaykh Abul Hasan Al-Ash’ari narrates that he heard Abu Abbas Ibn Shoraih saying that this ayah proves the Khilafalh of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr as Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was the one who fought those people who refused to pay Zakah and who denied its essentiality.
The ayah not only proves the Khilafah of Abu Bakr but it also emphasizes the importance of revering Sayyiduna Abu Bakr as the last portion of the Ayah warns those who do not obey him of a severe torment Sayyid una Abu Bakr is the best amongst humanity after the Messengers It is the consensus of the scholars of Ahl-us-Sunnah Wal-Jama’ah that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr is the most supreme human being after the Prophets. It is stated in a Hadeeth,
“The sun has neither risen nor set upon anyone more supreme than Abu Bakr apart from the Prophets.”
Meaning that apart from the Prophets, no one is more revered than Abu Bakr and no one more important than him has been born. In another Hadeeth, the Messenger of Allah states that
«Yulill all” Abu Bakr is the best of mankind with the exception of the Prophets. ” Savyiduna Omar e was once sat upon the pulpit delivering a sermon. I have stated that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr is the greatest of people after the Messenger of Allah. Anyone who opposes this is a slanderer and a fabricator and he shall be punished according to the legislation that applies to the slanderers in the Islamic Shari’ah. Sayyiduna Ali e states, “The best of this Ummah after its prophet are Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and Omar.” Allamah Adh-Dhahabi states that this quotation of Sayyiduna Ali is found in recurring (Tawaatur) narrations. (Taarcekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 31)
It is narrated in Al-Bukhari that Sayyiduna Muhammad Ibn Hanafiyyah states that he once asked his father of him, Sayyiduna Ali, in regards to whom amongst the people was the greatest. “l Jum -” He said Abu Bakr. “Thereafter Sayyiduna Muhammad Ibn Hanafiyyah inquired as to who was the greatest after Sayyiduna Abu Bakr.” A Jún “He said, Omar.” Sayyiduna Muhammad Ibn Hanafiyyah says “ghis Ja l C” _ ” I was fearful that he would say Othman and therefore I said after Omar you are the most important. “” Alall j dau YI Lil La Jún – Sayyiduna Ali e answered, “I am simply a man from amongst the Muslims.” Out of humility, Sayyiduna Ali portrayed himself as a normal human being who is just a Muslim. (Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 555)
Sayyiduna Ibn Omar narrates a Hadeeth mentioned in Al-Bukhari that during the life of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah, the Companions didn’t view anyone to be equal in status to Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, In other words, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was viewed as the most esteemed personality amongst the Companions (Ashaab – 2.) After Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, Sayyiduna Omar was revered and after him 68
[6:06 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Suyylduna Afler was not given preference Madinah to Karbala over another. (Mishkaah-tul-MMasaabeeh Page $ 55) Sayyiduna Abu Mansoor Al-Baghdadi states that it is the unanimous belief oc the Umimah that after the master of all creation, tho Prophet Muhammad the greatest personality is Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, thereafter, Sayyiduna Omar followed by Sayyiduna Othman after whom is Sayyiduna Ali and then Al-Ashrah Al Mubasharah S (the ten Companions given glad tidings of paradise whilst on Earth.) Following these ten companions in status are the martyrs of Al-Badr, the martyrs of Al-Uhud, the Companions who pledged the allegiance of Ar-Ridwaan (Bayy’ah-tur-Ridwaan) and then every other Companion. These companions in their entirety are the most supreme people of the Muslim Ummah and no-one cn gain equivalence to them in neither honour nor dignity, (Thareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 30) As-Siddeeq-al-Akbar And The Qur’anic Verses Many verses of the Qur’an have been revealed in praise of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq, One famous ayah (verse) in this regard is the verse of Surah Az- Zumar ‘And he who has come with the truth and those who confirmed it, they are the God-fearing. ‘ (Surah 39:33) It is narrated from Sayyiduna Ali that the person who is described as the one who came with the truth is the Prophet Muhammad whilst the person described as the one who attested to the truth is Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq. This view has been supported by the prominent Mufassireen (scholars of Tafseer Qur’anic exegesis) including the author of At-Tafseer-ul-Madaarik as well as Imam Ar-Ranzi & and this opinion is also expressed in the Tafseer text, Rooh- ul- Bayaan. It can be understood from these views of the scholars that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr has been deseribed by Allah as a ‘Muttaqee’ i.e. a pious person, along 06
[6:06 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq with the mercy to the universes, our master, Muhammad. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr is the most pious personality in the Ummah and he is the patron of all pious people. An ayah that is unanimously agreed to be discussing Sayyiduna Abu Bakr can be found in Surah At-Tawbah. Allah the Almighty states, “If you help him (the beloved Prophet) not, then no doubt, Allah helped him, when on account of the mischief of the infidels. He was to go out with only tw souls, when they both were in the cave and when he said to his companion, “Grieve not, no doubt Allah is with us. Then Allah sent his satisfaction on him and helped him with armies which you did not see and put down the word of the infidels. It is the word of Allah alone which is Supreme and Allah is dominant, wise. ‘ (Surah 9:40) In this ayah, Allah has recalled the words of the Messenger when he said to Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, Lias il l Y- “Grieve not, no doubt Allah is with us.” At that moment Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was not feeling aggrieved for himself but moreover he was worried about the Messenger of Allah. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr stated, “If I am killed then I am only one man (it will only be the loss of one man) but if you are killed then the entire Ummah will perish.” This ayah absolutely determines the fact that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr is a Companion of the Messenger Lizo sil jl ujai Y çabal J l 16
[6:07 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Madinah to Karbala “When he (the Messenger) said to his Companion.” This is why Sayyiduna Hussain Ibn Fadhl says, “Whosoever claims that Abu Bakr was not a Companion of Allah’s Messeno is a kaafir (a disbeliever) because he has denied the text of the Holy Our’an There are other ayahs that are in praise of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr which are situated in Surah Al-Lail – ‘But the most pious one shall be kept far away from it (ie The fire of Hell) who gives his wealth to become purified.’ (Surah 92:17) Sadr-ul-Afaadhil Maulana Na’eemuddeen Moradabadi A writes that these Ayaat were revealed in order to clarify the purity in intention of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq when he bought and thereafter freed Sayyiduna Bilal, The disbelievers were astonished when Sayyiduna Abu Bakr bought Sayyiduna Bilal for an extremely expensive price and thereafter freed him. It was the opinion of the disbelievers that Bilal may have had some favors upon Abu Bakr and this may have motivated Sayyiduna Abu Bakr to buy him. Allah the Almighty testified in these verses that Abu Bakr’s generosity was in order to gain the pleasure of Allah. (2) This act of goodwill was not a return of favors but moreover, Bilal did not have any previous favors upon Sayyidu Abu Bakr. In the aforementioned verses , Sayyiduna Abu Bakr is described as’ Atqan meaning the most pious and in Surah Al-Hujuraat, Allah says, Säl l aic S SI ül 92
[6:08 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Sayviduna Aou Bakr As-Siddeeq A ‘Undoubtedly, the most respected among you in the sight of Allah is he who is more pious.’ (Surah 49:13) When assessing the link between the two verses it becomes apparent that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr is the most honorable member of the Ummah in the court of Allah. As-Siddeeq Al-Akbar And The Ahadeeth There are many Ahaadeeth in which the Bakr As-Siddeeq e is expressed. It is narrated in At-Tirmidhi that the Messenger of Allah said, cellence and greatness of Sayyiduna Abu – “No-one’s wealth has ever benefited me in the manner that Abu Bakr’s wealth has benefited me. (Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 555) It is also mentioned in At- Tirmidhi that the Messenger of Allah once said to Abu Bakr, – “You are my companion in the cave and my companion on the well (Hawdh.)” Just as Abu Bakr accompanied the Messenger of Allah in the cave of Ath-Thaur, he shall accompany the Messenger in the well of Al-Kawthar. It is furthermore narrated in At-Tirmidhi by A’ishah that Abu Bakr e entered into the blessed presence of the beloved Messenger and the Messenger said to him , ic Allah has freed him (Abu Bakr) from the fire. Sayyidah A’ishah states that her father was from that day named ‘Ateeq.’ (Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 556) 93
[6:10 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Madinah to Karbala It is narrated in Abu Dawood that the Messenger of Allah said whilst addressing Abu Bakr, – “As for you Abu Bakr, you are the first to enter Al-Jannah amongst my nation.” (Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 556 ) The mother of the believers, Sayyidah A’ishah As-Siddeeqah 2narrates that it was once a moonlit night and the blessed head of the Messenger was on her knees. She questioned the Messenger of Allah, “O Messenger of Allah! Is there anyone whose good deeds are equivalent to the amount of stars in the skies? “The beloved of Allah replied,” Yes, Omar “A’ishah states that she then asked the Messenger of Allah in regards to the good deeds of Abu Bakr . The Messenger of Allah stated, “The entire good deeds of Omar a are equivalent to only one good deed of Abu Bakr.” (Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 560) It is narrated by Anas that the Messenger of Allah stated, p pa – “The love of Abu Bakr and gratitude towards him is obligatory upon my entire Ummah.” (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 40) It is narrated by Sayyiduna Abu Darda that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr entered into the holy presence of the master of all creation and informed him that a dispute had occurred between him and Sayyiduna Omar Ibn Al-Khattaab and that out of remorse, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr asked Sayyiduna Omar to forgive him but Sayyiduna Omar refused to accept his apology. Upon hearing this, the Messenger of Allah said to Abu Bakr thrice, “O Abu Bakr, may Allah forg ive you! “After a while Sayyiduna Omar arrived and the blessed face of the Messenger of Allah showed signs of displeasure as its color altered. Upon witnessing the displeasure of Allah’s Messenger, Sayyiduna Omar sat with utmost respect and said “O Messenger of Allah! 1 am more blameworthy than Abu Bakr.” The beloved 94
[6:11 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddecq ofAllah and the Master of all mankind stated, “Indeed Allah sent me to you and you said,” You lic “whilst Abu Bakr said” You bave told the truth “and consoled me with his moral and financial support . Will you neople then forsake my companion? ” The Messenger of Allah repeated these words twice. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 37) Sayyiduna Miqdaam that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was once It is narrated offended by the harsh words used by Sayyiduna Aqeel Ibn Abi Taalib, Due to Sayyiduna Aqeel being a relative of the Messenger, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr did not reply in retaliation. Instead Sayyiduna Abu Bakr informed the Messenger of Allah in regards to the conversation. Upon hearing about the issue, the Prophet arose and said, – “Leave my Companion to me. What is your stature in front of his esteemed personality? For by Allah, there is none amongst you but that there is darkness at the door of his house except for Abu Bakr as there is light at his doorstep. By Allah, you said “You have lied” whilst Abu Bakr said, “You have spoken the truth.” You ceased your wealth from me whilst Abu Bakr gave generously from his wealth . You deserted me whilst Abu Bakr gave me solace and followed me. ” (Taareekh-ul- Khulafaa Page 37) It is mentioned in Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 556 that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was being remembered in the presence of Sayyiduna Omar who began to cry. He then said the action of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr in one night and day was so tremendous that it may be possible that his actions of him on that specific night and day will be equivalent to the entire good deeds of Sayyiduna Omar’s life of him. The specific 95
[6:11 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Madinah to Karbala night in which Sayyiduna Abu Bakr carried out such amazing acts was the night in which he was migrating with the Messenger of Allah to the blessed city of Madinah and he spent the night in the service of Allah’s Messenger in the cave of Ath- Thaur which is situated at approximately two and a half kilometers above the ground. At the time they were about to reach the cave, Abu Bakr A said, – “By Allah you shan’t enter it until I enter before you.” Sayyiduna Abu Bakr desired to protect the Messenger of Allah from any harm that could be caused by any creature residing in the cave. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr entered the cave and purified it and when he noticed some holes in the cave, he covered them by cutting off some cloth from his loincloth. Two holes were not covered by any cloth and therefore he placed his heels over them. After completing these precautionary measures, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr requested that the Messenger of Allah enter the cave. The beloved of Allah entered the cave and placed his head upon the knees of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and fell asleep. Whilst the Messenger of Allah was resting, a snake bit Sayyiduna Abu Bakr’s heel from one of the holes he was covering with his heel from him. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr made no motion and remained seated in his position in order to ensure that the Messenger of Allah was not disturbed from his sleep. The poison of the snake was causing great pain until the tears of Abu Bakr began to flow and a few drops fell upon the blessed face of the Messenger. The Messenger of Allah inquired in regards to what was the matter and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr replied, “I have been bitten, may my father and mother be sacrificed upon you.” The best of creation placed his blessed saliva upon the wound and the pain disappeared. The effect of the poison reoccurred after many years and became the cause of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr’s eventual demise. The specific day mentioned by Sayyiduna Omar in which the actions of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr were so tremendous that they made Sayyiduna Omar feel as though that 96
[6:12 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq a action along with the reward attained for the actions of Abu Bakr in the cave of Thaur equalled the good deeds attained by Sayyiduna Omar in his entire lifetime, was the day when some Arabs refused to pay Zakah and became apostates as they denied the Fardhiyyah (essentiality) of paying Zakah. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr announced that he would fight them even if they refused to pay a rope of a camel that became essential upon them to bestow upon the poor. Sayyiduna Omar states that I requested Abu Bakr, i.e. be affectionate upon the people and treat them with leniency. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr replied that Sayyiduna Omar used to be rigid and furious in the days of ignorance but after entering into the folds of Islam it seemed as though ne had he become soft and weak. – “Indeed the revelation has been terminated and the religion has been completed. Should it become deficient whilst I am alive?” Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was expressing his determination to ensure that the religion of Islam was not weakened during his lifetime and thus he was prepared to wage war against those who refused to pay Zakalı until they reformed or were defeated. This was the second action that Sayyiduna Omar believed to be unequivocal. The Ahaadeeth that have been mentioned are a few amongst many that prove the greatness of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, his being the most beloved of Allah’s Messenger and his being the most entitled to be the successor of the beloved of Allah His Name And Lineage His name is Abdullah. His Kunniyyah (patronymic) is Abu Bakr. His appellations of him (Laqab) are Siddeeq and Ateeq. His father’s name of him was Othman whose Kunniyyah was Abu Quhafah. His mother’s name of him was Salmaa whose Kunniyyah was Ummul Khair. His chain of lineage meets the Messenger of Allah’s lineage seven generations L6
[6:13 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: YOU MAKE DUA FOR THE MUSLIM UMMAH AS WE ARE ALL SUFFERING Madinah to Karbata uligu prior to him with Murrah Ibn Ka’b. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr 2 was born approximately two and a half years after the event of the elephant (Al-Feel) in the blessed city of Al-Makkah Al-Mukarramah, The Hatred of Idol Worship At A Young Age Sayyiduna Abu Bakr did not worship idols even at the time of ignorance and he condemned polytheism from a young age. Sayyiduna Imam Ahmad Ridha writes in his pamphlet, Tanzeeh-makaanah-til-Haidariyyah ‘Puge 13, that the father of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, Sayyiduna Abu Quhafah (who later became a Muslim). accompanied Sayyiduna Abu Bakr to the place of idol worship when Abu Bakr was young in terms of age. The father introduced him to the idols by saying, – “These are your esteemed deities therefore prostrate before them.” Sayyiduna Abu Bakr’s father departed and allowed his son to remain with the idols in solitude. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr acted as though he was inquisitive before the idols and in order to make manifest their inability he asked them, “iblE ila i” – “I am hungry, feed me.” He received no reply. “iusi jle” – He said, “I am naked, clothe me “but there was no reply. Abu Bakr then took a stone and said to the idol, -” If you are a god then protect yourself “and he threw the stone at the idol which gave no reaction. Upon the throwing of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr , the idol fell on its face. By this time Abu Quhafah arrived and was amazed to see the situation before his eyes and he asked his son as to what he had done. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr replied that it was quite clear what he had done. Sayyiduna Abu Quhafah presented his son before Sayyidah Umm-Ul-Khair (the mother of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr) and explained the sequence of events to her. Ummul Khair 2 advised her husband de ella not to compel their son as she had heard an angel one night saying to her de ella, 98
[6:13 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq – “O bondwoman of Allah, I give you glad tidings of a free (Ateeq) are whose name in the heavens is Siddeeq who is a companion and associate of Muhammad.” onatot Abu Bakr During The Era Of Ignorance A nubi Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was the wealthiest man of his tribe of him during the era of ignorance. He was a man in whose character benevolence and goodwill were instilled features. He was overwhelmingly revered as he was often searching for the missing and he was extremely hospitable to his guests. He was categorized as being one of the leaders of the Quraish tribe as he was often contacted by them for advice and they admired him a lot. He is one of 11 Quraishis who received respect and nobility in both the era of Jahiliyyah (ignorance) and the era of Islam. In the era of Jahiliyyah, he used to pass verdicts in compensation trials including trials involving blood money. This action was seen as a sign of his prestige. Even in the era of ignorance, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr never consumed alcohol. He was once questioned during a gathering of the Companions whether he had ever drank alcohol. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr replied that he sought refuge with Allah, he had never done such a thing. When asked for the reason, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr replied, “bislgi unal Gis” – “I used to preserve my exposure and protect my chivalry.” In other words it is difficult for the one who consumes alcohol to preserve his dignity and therefore Sayyiduna Abu Bakr refrained from this act. When the Messenger of Allah heard about this statement by Abu Bakr, the beloved of Allah said twice, “Abu Bakr has spoken the truth.” (Taareekh-ul- Khulafaa) 66
[6:14 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: WE REQUEST YOU MAKE DUA FOR THE MUSLIM UMMA Madinah to Karbala His Features A person asked Sayyidah A’ishah to describe the physical features of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr. Sayyidah A’ishah replied that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was white in complexion and his body of him was lean. His cheeks were compressed and his stomach was so large that his loincloth (Izaar / lungi) would often slip under it. There would always be perspiration on his forehead of him and there was not a lot of flesh on his face of him. He would always lower his gaze and his forehead of him was high. El tips of his fingers were void of flesh and he used to die his hair with henna and dye. Sayyiduna Anas Ibn Malik narrates, when the Messenger of Allah arrived in the illuminated city of Madinah, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was the only person to have black and white hair. He used to dye the hair with henna and dye. (Taareekh- ul-Khulafaa Page 22) In regards to what has been narrated that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr e used to dye his hair with dye it should not be misconstrued to mean black dye. It should also not be assumed that henna and brown dye were mixed with black as this assumption is completely baseless and false. For further details one should refer to the pamphlet of Ash-Shaykh Al-Imam Ahmad Ridha Khan Al-Qadri, Hukk-ul-aibi fii hurmati tasweed-ish-shaibi ‘in which the exalted Imam proves the impermissibility of dying one’s hair black. His Acceptance Of Islam It has been the belief of many Companions and the following generation (At- Taabi’een) that the first person to accept Islam was Sayyiduna Abu Bakr e. Imam Ash-Shab’i states that he once asked Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas regarding the first person who accepted Islam. Ibn Abbas said that the first person to accept Islam was Abu Bakr. In order to prove this, he recited a few verses written by Sayyiduna Hassaan Ibn Thaabit in which he was praising and elevating Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and in which he mentioned that the first person to accept Islam was Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, 000
[6:15 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq Ibn Asaakir has narrated from Sayyiduna Ali e, _ “The first to accept Islam amongst the men was Abu Bakr.” Ibn Sa’d has narrated from Abu Arwaa Ad-Dowsi g – “The first (person) to accept Islam was Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq.” Sayyiduna Maimoon Bin Muhraan was asked in regards to whether Sayyiduna Ali accepted Islam first or Sayyiduna Abu Bakr. Sayyiduna Maimoon answered, «l jaj plg ule il ol – By Allah, Abu Bakr had believed in the Prophet at the time of Baheeraa-ar-raahib. (Sayyiduna Ali was born after Baheeraa-ar-raahib.) (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 23) (Note: Baheeraa-ar-Raahib was a scholar from Ash-Shaam who was from the Ahl-ul-Kitaab) Muhammad Ibn Ishaaq states that Muhammad Ibn Abdir Rahman Al Yateemi informed him that Allah’s Messenger once said, “Whenever I invited someone towards Islam, I found that the person battled with some sort of hesitation except for Abu Bakr who accepted Islam without any hesitation or any wavering. Imam Al-Bayhaqgi states that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was foremost in accepting Islam in the manner that he had already become aware of the attributes and signs of prophethood that exist in our Master, Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) before the first revelation and therefore as soon as he was invited towards Islam, he iminediately accepted. Some Muhaditheen have further expanded on the 101
[6:15 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: WE REQUEST YOU MAKE DUA FOR THE MUSLIM UMMAH AS WE ARE ALL SUFFERING Madinah to Karbala matter by explaining that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr 2 was a close associate of the Messenger and was aware of the excellent morals that he possessed as well as his pure habits and his truthfulness. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr 2 was aware that a man who could not lie and fabricate anything in worldly matters could certainly not fabricate anything in regards to Allah and therefore he accepted Islam without any deliberation due to his certainty that the Prophet Muhammad could never lie. From all these evidences it can be established that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeg was the first to accept Islam. Some scholars have affirmed this to such an extent that they have claimed that there is consensus over this issue. There is however differing opinions as some people have claimed that Sayyiduna Ali 2 was the first person to accept Islam whilst others hold the belief that Umm-ul-Mu’mineen (the mother of all believers) Sayyidah Khadijah Al-Kubraa 2 was the first person to testify that there is no deity except for Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger. Imam Abu Hanifah e formulated a manner to link all these opinions by saying that the first person to accept Islam amongst the men was Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeer, the first person to accept Islam amongst the women was Sayyidah Khadijah Al-Kubraa and the first person to accept Islam amongst the children was Sayyiduna Ali. The Perfection Of His Faith from him The faith of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was impeccable and amongst the companions he was the strongest in terms of belief, devotion and faith. The treaty of Al- Hudaibiyyah was an extremely testing aspect of life and faith at the time of the Messenger. One condition within this treaty was that a person who departed from Makkah and arrived in Madinah would be returned to Makkah regardless of whether he was a Muslim or a non-Muslim. On the other hand, when a resident of Madinah entered the city of Makkah, he would not be permitted to return to Madinah. Both parties had not yet signed the treaty when Sayyiduna Abu Jandal who had accepted Islam, escaped from Makkalh dragging his shackles until he reached Hudaibiyyah and took refuge amongst the Muslims. Sohail Ibn Amr, the father of Sayyiduna Abu Jandal was negotiating the terms of the treaty and he ordered that his son be returned to him. The Messenger of Allah stated that the treaty had not yet been signed and therefore the terms of the treaty would only be implemented 102
[6:16 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq after signatures had been placed on the agreement i.e. The treaty could only be enforceable for events occurring after the signature. Sohail Bin Amr threatened to terminate the negotiation if his son de él was not returned to him. The beloved of Allah requested that Sohail should allow his son to stay with the Muslims. Sohail absolutely refused to allow this. Sayyiduna Abu Jandal was distressed to witness the possibility of him being returned to Makkah and began to seek assistance from the Companions saying, “O Muslims! Can you not see that I am being returned to the disbelievers although I am a Muslim and have sought refuge with you? ” The Companions were astonished when they saw wounds on the body of Sayyiduna Abu Jandal and it pained them a lot. Sayyiduna Omar went to the Messenger of Allah and said, “Are you not the Messenger of Allah?” The Prophet replied “Indeed I am.” Omar further stated, “Are we not on the truth and are the disbelievers not astray?” The Mercy of the Worlds replied, “Of course we are on the true path and the disbelievers are on falsehood.” Sayyiduna Omar then inquired, “When this is the case then why are we allowing ourselves to be restrained in our religious matters and reaching a truce?” The beloved of Allah told Sayyiduna Omar that he was the Messenger of Allah and therefore he could never disobey Allah’s commands from him and Allah was his Almighty Helper from him. Sayyiduna Omar further asked the Messenger of Allah, “Did you not promise that we would circumbulate the Holy Ka’bah?” The Messenger of Allah stated that he had never promised that this would happen in that specific year. Sayyiduna Omar accepted this and recollected the fact that the Messenger had never promised that the pilgrimage would take place in that specific year. Sayyiduna Omar went to Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and discussed with him the same views that he had expressed in fro: Bakr advised Sayyiduna Omar, “j pj” – “Cling to his stirrup.” Meaning that Sayyiduna Omar should adhere to the Messenger’s actions as he was the Messenger of Allah and therefore Allah was his helper of him. Sayyiduna Omar’s passionate emotion decreased due to these words. of the blessed Messenger. Sayyiduna Abu The manner in which the treaty had been reached with its appeasing terms was rather intolerable and distressing for the Muslims. The Messenger thrice said to the Muslims after the conclusion of the agreement that they should sacrifice their 103
[6:16 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Madinah to Karbala animals, shave their heads and thereafter free themselves from the state of Ihragm but no-one was prepared to arise and carry out these acts that were so heartbreakino Sayyiduna Omar said words in the court of the Messenger that he would forever regret. Sayyiduna Omar attempted to nullify the damage caused by these words by carrying out good deeds. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was certain that there was wisdom behind the words of the Messenger and that the assistance of the Lord was forever accompanying the Messenger. This was the reason why he gave such an enlightening answer to Sayyiduna Omar when Sayyiduna Omar approached him in regards to the actions of the Messenger. This asserts the fact that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was the most steadfast and assured in faith amongst the Companions 2, His faith was so strong that it even calmed the anxiety and passion of Sayyiduna Another time in which his unchallengeable faith was witnessed was when the disbelievers approached him the day after the night ofascension and informed him that his friend Muhammad (ie The Messenger of Allah peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was claiming that he had journeyed to Bait-ul-Muqaddas (Jerusalem) and thereafter he was given a tour of the heavens all in the space of one night. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr reconfirmed whether the Messenger of Allah had actually said this and when he was assured by the disbelievers that this had actually been said, he said to the disbelievers, “uli c aly 4á” Meaning that he would endorse anything said by the Messenger of Allah even if the Messenger had claimed something that was viewed by normal human beings as even more farfetched than this claim. In the Ghazwah (Battle) of Al-Radr, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr’s son, Abdul Rahman, who later accepted Islam was fighting on the side of the disbelievers. One day after his acceptance of Islam, he told Sayyiduna Abu Bakr that during the battle of Al-Badr, he had seen Abu Bakr within his range of him many times but he didn’t kill him. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr informed him, “dte i yail cisal m -” If you had come into my aim, I would not have diverted from you “ie he would have killed his son. This is the reason why Sayyiduna Omar stated that if the belief of the entire Muslim people was to be weighed against the belief and faith of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr then the faith of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr would surely outweigh the faith of all the Muslims. (Narrated by Al-Bayhaqi in Shu’b-ul-Imaan as well as As-Suyuti in Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 40) 104
[6:17 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq His Courage Savviduna Abu Bakr was the most courageous and brave amongst the companions. Shaykh Bazzaar writes in his Musnad that Sayyiduna Ali k once questioncd the people as to who he was the most courageous amongst them. The neople answered that they believed Sayyiduna Ali was himself the most courageous amongst the Companions. Sayyiduna Ali said that it was not possible for him to be the most courageous as he always fought against his match. He once again asked them to inform him of the most courageous companion. The people answered that they were not aware of who this person was and therefore they requested that Sayyiduna Ali inform them in this regard. Sayyiduna Ali said, “Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was the most brave amongst us as was proven in the battle of Al-Badr. We had all set up a hut for the Messenger of Allah so that he could be protected from the dust and sunlight. A discussion then took place in regards to who would accompany the Messenger. “A YI al A Gi La Al g5″ – By Allah not one of us stepped forward except for Abu Bakr. He took a sword in his naked hand and stood besides the Messenger of Allah. The enemy did not dare attempt to come close to the Messenger after that and if anyone desired to do so, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr would immediately attack them. This is the reason why I say that the bravest person was Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, ” (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 25) Sayyiduna Ali a mentions an event that occurred when the disbelievers seized the Messenger of Allah and asked him whether he was the one who claimed that the Lord is one. Sayyiduna Ali states after swearing by Allah, that apart from Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, not one of them moved forth. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr stepped forward and attacked the disbelievers, pushing them away from the Messenger saying, “Shame upon you, you are tormenting the personality who bears witness that there is only one deity – Allah.” People used to hide and conceal their belief of him but Abu Bakr used to openly express his beliefs of him. This is the reason why he was the most courageous amongst them. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa, Page 25) Allamah Haitham writes in his Musnad that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr said, 105
[6:18 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Madinah to Karbala – “When it was the day of Uhud, everyone abandoned Allah’s Messenger undu was the first to return to him.” (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 25) His Generosity Generosity was another attribute in which Sayyiduna Abu Bakr excelled It is narrated in At-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawood by Sayyiduna Omar that the Messenger of Allah commanded the companions to give towards charity, At that moment in time, Sayyiduna Omar had a significant amount of wealth in his possession and it occurred in his mind that he would precede Sayyiduna Abu Bakr for the first time in spending the most amount in Allah’s way. Sayyiduna Omar gathered half of all his possessions of him and placed them before the Messenger. The Messenger of Allah asked Sayyiduna Omar, “fallaY Cua La” – “What have you left for you family?” Sayyiduna Omar replied that he had left behind half of all his possessions of him. Thereafter, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr arrived with the possessions he wished to spend in the way of the Lord. The Prophet of Allah inquired from him, “Seltsy Cá La” – “What have you left for your household?” Sayyiduna Abu Bakr answered, «gug il Jä -” I have left for them Allah and His Messenger “meaning that Allah and His Messenger of him were sufficient for him and his family of him. Sayyiduna Omar concluded from this event, “ll dal Y Cln -” I concluded that I would never precede nor exceed him in anything. “(Mishkaah-tul- Masaabeeh Page 556) Sayyidah A’ishah As-Siddeeqah narrates that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr had 40,000 Dinar in his possession when he accepted Islam. In another narration it is stated 40,000 Dirham. He spent this entire amount upon the command of the Sayyiduna Ibn Omar narrates that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr had that he Messenger 40,000 Dirham in his possession on the day in which he accepted Islam. When he migrated to Madinah in the company of the mercy to all mankind, only 5000 Dirham was remaining from that original amount. In the blessed city of Makkah, prior to his migration, he had spent 35 000 Dirham on freeing Muslim slaves and helping Islam through other charitable works. 901
[6:18 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Sayylduna Abu Bakr As-Stddeeg Sudr-ul-Afhadhil, Maulana Muhammad Na’eem-ud-Deen Al-Moradabadi totes that a verse of the Qur’an ws revealed afler Sayylduna Abu Bakr (may Allah Ne pleased with him) had spent the amount of 40 000 Dirham and he spent a portion orthe amount (.e. 10 000) nt night wlillst he spent 10 000 during the day. He spent 10,000 secretly whilst another 10 000 openly, Allah the Almighty then revealed the (Those who spend their wealth (in charity) in the night and in the day seeretly und openly have their reward with their Lord. There is neither any fear nor any grief to them. ‘(Al-Qur’an Surah 2: 274) It is narrated in At Tirmidhi that the messenger of Allah me a favor but that I managed to repay him except for Abu Bakr. He has done such a favor upon me that only Allah can reward him for it. “bia Ju ai lag” “Ju -” No-one’s wealth ever benefited me in the manner that the wealth of Abu Bakr has benefited me. “(Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 555) said, “No one has done His Love For The Messenger Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq had great affection for the beloved of Allah and his love for him was unlimited. During the early period of Islam, people would conceal their faith and the Messenger of Allah advised them to do so in order to preserve them from oppression. When the amount of Muslims reached 40, S ayyiduna Abu Bakr regquested that Islamic propagation now take place openly, The best of all creation was reluctant to permit this as it would create a volatile situation in Makkah but he eventually accepted due to the continual insistence of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr. The Last Prophet accompanied his Companions to Masjid-al-Haraam where Sayyiduna Abu Bakr delivered a sermon that was the first public sermon on the topic of Islam. The uncle of the beloved Messenger, Sayyiduna Hamzah and accepted Islam on the same day that this event took place. 107
[6:18 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Madinah to Karbala As soon as the sermon began, the Mushrikeen (polytheists) broke upon the Muslime surrounding them from all four corners. In spite of the virtue and greatness Sayyiduna Abu Bakr being famous in the city of Makkah, the disbelievers iniure him so badly that his face de él (including his nose and ears) were covered with hloo The severity of the injuries caused him to become unconscious . When the tribe of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr 2, Banu Tameem, became aware of the tyranny that had occurred, they lifted Sayyiduna Abu Bakr 2 and returned him to his home. They had lost hope that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr would survive due to the severity of the injuries. An announcement was made by the tribe in the vicinity of the Holy Ka’bah that in the case of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr dying due to the injuries afflicted upon him, Utbah Ibn Rabee’ah would be killed due to his huge involvement of him in the assault. Until the evening, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr remained unconscious. When he eventually gained some consciousness, his first reaction was to askabout the condition of the Messenger. The people reprimanded him and said to him that he had found himself in this situation due to being in the company of the Messenger but yet he was still inquiring about the Messenger? The immense love of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr for the Messenger of Allah did not allow him to feel comfortable as he was not yet aware of the beloved Messenger’s condition of him. Some people were disheartened and therefore left Sayyiduna Abu Bakr whilst others were leaving due to their contentment that he would survive. Whilst leaving, they advised Sayyiduna Abu Bakr’s mother, Ummul Khair 2 (as she later became a Muslim,) to prepare food and nourishment for Sayyiduna Abu Bakr. She prepared food and she placed it before Sayyiduna Abu Bakr encouraging him to eat but he was anxious to know the condition of the Messenger. Ummul Khair told her son that she was not aware of the condition of the Messenger. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr insisted that his mother should ask the sister of Sayyiduna Omar e, Sayyidah Umm Jameel and find out about the condition of the Messenger of Allah. Upon seeing her son de ella so restless, Sayyidah Ummul Khair rushed to Sayyidah Umm Jameel and inquired in regards to the condition of our Master, Muhammad. Sayyidah Umm Jameel had not revealed her belief in the Islamic faith and therefore she attempted to evade the question and did not give a clear answer. She nevertheless offered to accompany Sayyidah Ummul Khair in order to view the condition of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr. 108
[6:19 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq When Sayyidalh Umm Jameel saw the condition of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr she was hocked and began to unbearably cry. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr questioned her in pegards to the condition of the Messenger of Allah. Sayyidah Umm Jameel tapalled towards Sayyidung Abu Bakr’s mother in order to make him aware that she was fearful of revealing her faith of her in front of his mother of her. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr assured her that there was no need to fear and thereafter Sayyidah Umm Jameel informed him that the Messenger of Allah was in good health. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr asked her about the whereabouts of the Messenger. She informed him that he was residing in the house of Sayyiduna Arqam. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr swore by the Almighty that he would neither eat nor drink until he had seen the Messenger of Allah. The mother of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was anxious to see her son eat and drink especially due to his weak condition but Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was not prepared to do so until he had met the Messenger of Allah. Sayyidah Ummul Khair waited until the passing to and fro of the people halted due to the fear of another attack. Later in the night, Sayyidah Ummul Khair (who had not accepted Islam at this moment in time,) took Sayyiduna Abu Bakr to the honored Messenger. As soon as Sayyiduna Abu Bakr saw the leader of all Prophets in the house of Sayyiduna Arqam, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr embraced the Messenger of Allah and the Messenger clung to Abu Bakr and he began to cry. Upon seeing the state of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, everyone present in the gathering also began to cry. (Taareekh- ul-Khulafaa) This was the immense love that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr possessed for the Messenger that he could not feel at ease unless he had seen Allah’s beloved of him. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr observed and fulfilled the aims of the Jaish Osama (an army) that was sent by the Messenger of Allah during the last days of his earthly life from him to the land of Ash-Shaam. The army had only just left Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah and reached an area called Dhii Khashb when the Messenger of Allah passed away. Upon hearing this unfortunate news, many Arabs turned away from Islam and became apostates. The Companions advised that it was rather unwise to allow the army to continue as there was now a huge challenge lacing the Muslims from areas closer to Madinah than Ash-Shaam. It was an extremely volatile situation for Islam as the disbelievers had been given confidence and their previously inconceivable hopes had now become attainable due to the 601
[6:20 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Madinah to Karbala demise of Allah’s Messenger. The hypocrites (Munafiqeen) saw this as an opportunity to create mischief as the weak in faith had already turned away from Islam and the Muslims had been afflicted with grief and pain that they had never experienced before. The heartbreak and confusion that existed was unparalleled as the world had never experienced such a loss before. The hearts of the Muslims were wounded, their tears were continuously flowing, all food seemed tasteless and life itself seemed like an unbearable tragedy. Maintaining order, defending the religion as well as the Muslims and halting the flow of apostasy at this disastrous time were responsibilities that lied on the shoulders of the Messenger’s successor, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr. In spite of all these hardships, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Á was not prepared to recall the army sent by the Messenger of Allah because he could not bear to oppose the judgment of the Messenger of Allah. Although he was able to bear the burden of all types of other hardships, he could not bear to do such a thing due to his rigidity in obeying the Messenger Further creating difficulty was the insistence of the Companions that the army be brought back. Sayyiduna Osama Ibn Zaid returned to Madinah in order to inform Sayyiduna Abu Bakr that the tribes of Arabia were prepared for warfare and were pursuing in order to destroy Islam whilst veteran soldiers were in his army i.e. The Jaysho Osama. Allowing these highly trained soldiers to continue their journey towards Rome and abandoning Arabia was rather inappropriate in the view of Sayyiduna Osama. The Companions have accepted that anyone else in the place of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr would have become hopeless due to the congestion of so many problems and difficulties. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr’s resolve did not falter and not once did an alteration occur in his perseverance of him. He said, “I would rather that the birds chew my bones but I can not bear to allow my opinion to interfere in the will of the Messenger of Allah. I cannot therefore allow an army sent by the honored Messenger to be returned.” Sayyiduna Abu Bakr ordered that the army continue to proceed. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr’s bravery, proficiency and his trust of him in Allah is apparent from his actions of him during this period. Even the enemy is compelled to admit that Sayyiduna
[6:22 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq Abu Bakr was the most capable and deserving successor and Khalifah of the beloved Messenger The army of Osama Ibn Zaid proceeded towards Rome, a fact that astonished the apostates who believed that the demise of the Messenger of Allah had weakened the Muslims and jumbled the entire system. They had believed that the majesty and pover of Islam would no longer remain yet they were now witnessing the army of İslam departing towards Rome. Their intellectual plans were falsified in the manner that they now understood that the Master of the universe had established a system whereby it wasn’t possible for the organization of the Muslims to collapse. Even during this period of sorrow and grief, Muslims were continuing the propagation of Islam and were prepared to challenge the strong powers of the world. The apostates now decided were to be victorious. By the grace of Allah, the Muslims were successful and the Romans were defeated. When the victorious army returned, those who had intended to turn away from Islam refrained from this terrible intention and remained steadfast on the religion of Islam, The great opinionated Companions who had strongly opposed the departure of the army to Rome, realized the intellectual capability of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and accepted that they were originally mistaken. (Swaanih-e- Karbala) wait and assess the situation and see if the Muslims It is mentioned in Al-Bayhaqi and Ibn Asaakir, that Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah said, “I swear by Him besides Whom there is none worthy of worship, had Sayyiduna Abu Bakr has not been selected as the Khalifah of the Messenger, not one act of worship would remain on the face of the Earth. ” Abu Hurairah repeated these words thrice and was asked to give the reason for saying these words. Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah explained how the Messenger of Allah had ordered an army to go to Ash-Shaam under the leadership of Sayyiduna Osama but the army had only reached Dhii Khashb when the Messenger of Allah passed away. After the demise of the Messenger, those Arabs who were residing in the surrounding areas of Madinah became apostates. The Companions arrived before Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and insisted that the army of Osama be returned. 111
[6:23 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Madinah to Karbala “By Him besides Whom there is no deity, even if dogs drag the wives of the Prophet along with their feet, I shall not return an army sent by the Messenger of Allah.” He also vowed to always raise the flag that the Messenger of Allah had hailed and never allow that flag to be lowered. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr ordered Sayyiduna Osama Ibn Zaid to proceed to Ash-Shaam, As the army proceeded, the apostate tribes became terrified. When they eventually reached the Roman Empire, there was a battle in which the Muslim army was victorious. Thus Islam prospered. (Taureekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 51) It was the outcome of the unlimited and ultimate love that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr possessed for the Messenger of Allah that he managed to strengthen Islam during this extremely critical moment of Islamic history through his single-handed decision not to recall the army of Sayyiduna Osama Ibn Zaid in spite of widespread opposition, Briefly, it can be concluded that the love of the Messenger that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr possessed, saved Islam and strengthened it perpetually. Objections Towards The Payment Of Zakah Whilst the demise of the Messenger of Allah had created a situation in which some people turned away from Islam and all of its legislations, on the other hand a group of people arose who objected to the essentiality of Zakah (the payment of a certain amount of one’s yearly savings to the poor) and therefore refused to pay the sum that had become compulsory upon them. Due to the fact that the essentialny of Zakah is proven from lucid verses of the Holy Qur’an, those who deny this essentiality (fardhiyyah) are deemed to have transgressed beyond the boundary of Islam and have thus been described as apostates by the interpreters of Ahaadeeth 112
[6:23 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Sayylduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeg a ond the jurists. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Ve desired to fight these people but fsced obiections from Sayyiduna Omar RáM and other Companions who believed that the situation of the Muslims deemed warfare to be unsuitable at that moment in dime. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr k remained defiant and replied, “By Allah, if they refuse to pay even a rope or a young goat that they used to pay at the time of the Messenger, I shall fight them. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 51 ) Sayyiduna Abu Bakr k departcd towards the Bedouins who immediately absconded. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr A appointed Sayyiduna Khalid as the leader and then returned to Madinah. Sayyiduna Khalid surrounded the Bedouins and was successful in his campaign. Sayyiduna Omar along with the other Companions, acknowledged the fact that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was correct in his decision and said, “By Allah, the chest of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeg has been widened and whatever he has.done is correct.” If Sayyiduna Abu Bakr e did not challenge those who denied Zakah and acquitted them then the case would deteriorate up until people would begin to deny all types of religious principles including Salaah and fasting during the month of Ramadhan. Thus the entire structure of Islam would be altered as its system would be completely disarranged. Sadr-ul-Afaadhil writes in regards to the war between Sayyiduna Abu Bakr e and those who refused to pay Zakah, The Muslims should be aware that defense of the truth and opposition of falschood are necessary at all times. The nation who is idle in opposing falschood shall face swift destruction. There are some naïve Muslims in this day and age who condemn the refutation of devious sects and advise the Muslims to suspend this debate due to the difficult times. Such Muslims should learn from the life of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr who challenged and opposed falsehood even at an extremely critical period, To be heedless of the deviant sects which are causing a threat to Islanı delivers harm to Islam. ‘ (Swaanih- e-Karbala) It should be noted that submission towards and acceptance of every single primary principle of Islam classes one to be a Muslim. Therefore simply reciting the Shahadah in which one testifies that there is no God besides Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger, is not sufficient solitarily, If a person believes in every principle of faith but denies the essentiality of certain compulsory acts, he shall be classed as a disbeliever and an apostate, Thus those who denied the essentiality of Zakah 113
[6:24 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Madinah to Karbala l became apostates. As for those who claim that there can be no apostates amongst the Arabs, they are clearly mistaken.
A False Accusation
The Rawaatidh accuse Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq 2 of usurping a garden of the Messenger of Allah known as the garden of Fadak ‘and depriving Sayyidah Fatimah Az-Zahra 2 of her right de ella. This accusation is false and misled as the Prophets do not leave behind inheritance, moreover, their wealth is part of charity and is distributed accordingly. It is narrated by Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq that the Messenger of Allah stated, i.e. The Prophets do not possess inheritors moreover whatever they leave behind is sadaqah (charity.) (Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 550) It is narrated in Volume 2, Page 91 of Muslim, that some of the blessed wives of the Messenger desired to receive inheritance from the wealth of Allah’s Messenger by having it distributed by Sayyiduna Othman, Sayyidah A’ishah replied, -Sayyidah A’ishah asked them if they were aware that the Messenger of Allah had said that the Prophets do not possess inheritors but moreover whatever they left behind was sadaqah. A narration of Sayyiduna Malik Ibn Aws is mentioned in Al-Bukhari (Volume 2 Page 575) and Muslim (Volume 2 Page 90) in which it is stated that a gathering of the Companions took place in which there were many companions present 114
[6:24 PM, 6/9/2021] Hasan: Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq including; Sayyiduna Abbas, Sayyiduna Othman, Sayyiduna Ali, Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Bin Awf, Sayyiduna Zubair Ibn Al-Awaam and Sayyiduna Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqaas. Sayyiduna Omar e informed the gathering that the Messenger of Allah had on announced that no-one was appointed as the Prophet’s inheritor but moreover his wealth of him was sadaqah. Everyone testified to the fact that this was said by the Messenger of Allah The proof of these Ahaadeeth being authentic is the action of Sayyiduna Ali when the inheritance of Allah’s Messenger was captured during his reign of him as Khalifah in Khaybar and Fadak. After Sayyiduna Ali, the inheritance remained under the control of Imam Hasan and Imam Hussain but it was not distributed amongst the blessed and pure wives nor Sayyiduna Abbas and his children of him, proving that there is no inheritance from the wealth of a prophet. This was the reason behind Sayyiduna Abu Bakr not bestowing the garden of Fadak to Sayyidah Fatimah Az-Zahra. There was no malice in Sayyiduna Abu Bakr’s intentions – an argument cited by the Rawaafidh. (A detailed debate in this regard can be studied in the author’s Urdu pamphlet, ‘Baaghe-e-Fadhak aur Hadeeth-e-Qirtaas’) As for the verse of the Qur’an in which Allah states, “And Sulaiman became the successor of Daud. ‘ (Al-Qur’an Surah 27:16) along with various other verses and narrations in which the inheritance of the Prophets is discussed, one should remember that these are discussing the inheritance of the Prophets’ knowledge and prophethood, not the inheritance of wealth and possessions.
His Ailment And Demise
Al-Waaqidi and Al-Haakim narrate that Sayyidah A’ishah As-Siddeeqah stated that her father, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddecq’s illness, began on Monday 7 Jumada Al Ukhraa after he bathed. The cold was extreme and it affected him. causing a fever. For fifteen days, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr remained ail and during that period he was not able to leave his house in order to perform Salaah. Eventually, it was (on the face of it) due to this illness that he passed away at the age of 63 after having fulfilled the commands of Khilafah for a period of 2 years and approximately 2 months.
The date of this great personality’s demise was 22nd Jumada Al-Ukhraa, 13 years after the Hijrah (AH.) He was buried in the blessed area beside the Messenger of Allah.
Indeed we belong to Allah and to Him is our return.
Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Ibn Abi Bakr narrates that Sayyiduna Abu Bakronce arrived with 3 people from the Ashaab-us-Suffah to his home de el and after commanding that food be prepared for them, departed in order to serve the Messenger of Allah. He was very busy that day, so much so that he ate supper at the blessed house of the beloved and arrived home extremely late at night. Upon arrival, his wife informed him that in spite of her offering food to the guests, they refused to cat until Sayyiduna Abu Bakr did not return. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was upset with his son Abdul Rahman due to the fact that he did not inform him that the guests were in anticipation of him. The food now arrived and he ate with the guests. The narrator states, “By Allah, we would not take a morsel but that the layer beneath would increase more than the morsel.” Eventually, all the diners were satiated but in spite of that, there was more food remaining than originally cooked. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, amazed to see this, inquired from his wife of him as to the reason why more food seemed to be in the bowl compared to before. His wife de él swore by Allah that the food seemed to have increased threefold in comparison to how much she had cooked. The food was then taken to the court of the Messenger and the food remained with the Messenger until the morning. A truce between the Muslims and the disbelievers had coincidentally ends dispatch. This army of many men ate the food until it filled them and in spite of that, the food didn’t decrease. (Al-Bukhari Volume 1 Page 506)
This is one of the miracles of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr.
It is narrated by Sayyidah A’ishah As-Siddeeqah that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr said to her whilst delivering his last testament that whatever wealth he had possessed was now in the ownership of his inheritors. Amongst his beloved children were his two sons Abdul Rahman and Muhammad, whilst amongst his daughters of her were her (Sayyidah A’ishah’s) two sisters. Therefore it was his desire for him that the children distribute the wealth amongst each other with justice and in accordance with the Qur’anic teachings.
Sayyidah A’ishah said to her father, “My only sister is Asma, so who is the second sister?” He replied that her stepmother, Habeebah Bint Kharijah was pregnant with a child and the daughter that she would conceive in the near future would be Sayyidah A’ishah’s second sister. After the demise of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, Habeebah Bint Kharijah gave birth to a daughter named Umm Kulthum.
(Al-Muwatta Lil- Imam Muhammad, Baab-un Nahli Page 348)
From the aforementioned Hadeeth, two miracles of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr become apparent. Firstly, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was aware that he would die soon and that is why he described his wealth as being in the possession of his inheritors.
Secondly, he was aware that the child in the womb of Habeebah was a girl with certainty as he informed Sayyidah A’ishah of the girl being her sister. The knowledge of the time when one will die and what is in the womb is knowledge of the unseen bestowed by Allah to those who are beloved to him and thus this is a miracle of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr.
The Specialties of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr
Ibn Asaakir narrates from Imam Ash-Sha’bi stating that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr á was blessed with four attributes that are unique to him. Firstly, his name was As- Siddeeq-a name that no one else possessed prior to him. Secondly, I have resided with the Messenger of Allah in the cave of Ath-Thaur. Thirdly, he accompanied the Prophet during the Hijrah (migration).
The fourth speciality described by Ibn Asaakir is the fact that he was commanded by the beloved of Allah to lead the prayers whilst the Companions followed him.
Another unique trait in his character was the fact that four generations from his household were Companions of the Messenger of Allah. His father Abu Quhafah was a companion, he himself was a companion, his son Abdul Rahman was a companion as well and his grandson Abu Ateeq Muhammad was also a companion.
May Allah be pleased with every one of them